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Table 4 Pre-hospital medical procedures

From: Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

Restricted to HEMS   HEMS more experienced HEMS EMS
  n   n n
Hypnotics* 147 Unsuccessful endotracheal intubation® 0 20
Muscle relaxants# 146 Successful endotracheal intubation® 214 66
Chest tube 5 Peripheral venous canula 272 304
Central venous line 12 Intraosseous access 68 31
Hypertonic fluid& 104 Intraosseous access and CPR 19 27
Antibiotics 26 Pain management** 149 45
Physician transfer 376 Medication for ALS 109 28
Venous cutdown 2    
Total 818   831 521
  1. *Hypnomidate, midazolam, propofol, s-ketamine (hypnotic dose)
  2. #Suxamethonium, rocuronium
  3. &Mannitol, hyperhaes
  4. Cefazolin, ceftriaxon
  5. **Fentanyl, Alfentanyl, locoregional anaesthesia, s-ketamine (analgetic dose)
  6. Amiodarone, atropine, dobutamine, epinephrine
  7. ® Successful versus unsuccessful endotracheal intubation: Pearson chi square p < 0.05