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Table 2 Results from multivariate analyses (odds ratios) a (n = 616)

From: Over-prescribing of antibiotics and imaging in the management of uncomplicated URIs in emergency departments

  Antibiotics Imaging
URI type   
  URI NOS (Referent)   
  Nasopharyngitis, laryngitis, or influenza 0.434 0.517
  Bronchitis 11.333* 3.608*
  Multiple URI Dx 4.796* 1.017
Vital Signs at presentation   
  Temperature > 100.4 2.777* 1.450
  Tachycardia 0.674 1.038
  SBP > 160 or DBP > 100 0.670 1.044
Characteristics of visit   
  Moderate or severe pain 1.212 1.436
  Waiting time > 2 hrs 1.917* 1.116
  Not seen by a physician 1.348 0.589
  Season (Fall as referent)   
    Spring 0.733 1.504
    Summer 0.718 1.508
    Winter 0.746 1.461
Demographics   
  41-64 years of age (vs. 18–40) 1.432 2.300*
  Female 0.464* 1.326
  Race/ethnicity (Non-hispanic white as referent)   
    Non-hispanic black 0.961 1.131
    Other races and ethnicities 1.012 1.119
Source of payment   
  Private insurance 0.491 3.532*
  Medicare 0.356 2.982*
  Medicaid 0.715 2.303
  Self pay 0.558 1.618
  Other source of payment 0.597 2.557
Geographic location   
  Metropolitan statistical areas 0.835 2.295*
  Region (Northeast as Referent)   
    Midwest 1.101 1.044
    South 1.814 0.934
    West 0.773 0.754
  1. *: p < 0.05.
  2. a: Odds ratios are reported.