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Table 2 Injury characteristics and outcomes of fall patients in Pakistan

From: Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

Variables Intentional
n (%)
Unintentional falls
n (%)
χ2 p-value Total#
n (%)
Mechanism of fall (n = 3335)
Fall from height 169 (26.9) 338 (28.5) 0.606 857 (25.7)
Fall from tripping 35 (5.6) 79 (6.7)   190 (5.7)
Fall from slipping 367 (58.4) 671 (56.6)   1990 (59.7)
Fall others 58 (9.2) 98 (8.3)   298 (8.9)
Body parts injured (n = 2327)*
Head/neck 118 (25.9) 257 (25.4) - 542 (23.3)
Face 42 (9.2) 99 (9.8)   218 (9.4)
Upper limb 148 (32.5) 300 (29.6)   834 (35.8)
Lower limb 188 (41.2) 375 (37.0)   770 (33.1)
Chest/abdomen 28 (6.1) 34 (3.4)   130 (5.6)
Other 1 (0.2) 46 (4.5)   47 (2.0)
Nature of injury (n = 1519)*
Sprain/strains/bruises 61 (13.7) 241 (29.2) - 405 (26.7)
Cuts/wounds 261 (58.8) 486 (58.8)   791 (52.1)
Fractures/dislocation 125 (28.2) 100 (12.1)   330 (21.7)
Concussion/contusion/Intracranial bleeding 50 (11.3) 65 (7.9)   122 (8.0)
Other injuries 6 (1.4) 16 (1.9)   1 (0.1)
Disposition (n = 2572)
Discharged from ED 378 (74.9) 893 (84.3) 0.000 2031 (79.0)
Admitted 103 (20.4) 100 (9.4)   415 (16.1)
Death 8 (1.6) 17 (1.6)   32 (1.2)
Others (Left against medical advice/Left without being seen/Referred out) 16 (3.2) 49 (4.6)   94 (3.7)
  1. *Total >100% as multiple responses were possible
  2. #missing: intent for 45.6% (n = 1520), disposition for 22.9% (n = 763)