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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HR) by variable and follow-up length, with associated 95% confidence intervals

From: Factors influencing emergency medical readmission risk in a UK district general hospital: A prospective study

Variables in the Equation 28 days HR (95% CI) 3 months HR (95% CI) 6 months HR (95% CI) 12 months HR (95% CI)
Female -   -   -   -  
Male 1.17** (1.06 – 1.30) 1.14*** (1.06 – 1.23) 1.15*** (1.08 – 1.23) 1.13*** (1.07 – 1.20)
Age <60 -   -   -   -  
Age 60–74 1.41*** (1.23 – 1.62) 1.47*** (1.33 – 1.64) 1.44*** (1.32 – 1.58) 1.46*** (1.35 – 1.58)
Age >75 1.45*** (1.26 – 1.67) 1.45*** (1.30 – 1.62) 1.56*** (1.42 – 1.71) 1.57*** (1.45 – 1.70)
Affluent -   -   -   -  
2 1.01 (0.87 – 1.17) 1.05 (0.94 – 1.17) 1.07 (0.97 – 1.18) 1.07 (0.98 – 1.16)
3 0.98 (0.84 – 1.13) 1.09 (0.98 – 1.22) 1.15** (1.05 – 1.27) 1.17*** (1.08 – 1.27)
Deprived 1.09 (0.94 – 1.26) 1.21** (1.08 – 1.35) 1.21*** (1.10 – 1.33) 1.25*** (1.16 – 1.36)
Test for trend (Deprivation Index)^ 1.02 (0.98 – 1.07) 1.06*** (1.03 – 1.10) 1.07*** (1.04 – 1.10) 1.08*** (1.05 – 1.11)
All other diagnoses -   -   -   -  
Heart Failure 1.32* (1.02 – 1.70) 1.43*** (1.19 – 1.71) 1.47*** (1.26 – 1.71) 1.33*** (1.16 – 1.53)
COPD/asthma 1.25* (1.04 – 1.50) 1.23** (1.08 – 1.41) 1.29*** (1.15 – 1.45) 1.34*** (1.21 – 1.48)
ACS 1.12 (0.97 – 1.28) 1.15** (1.04 – 1.27) 1.12* (1.02 – 1.22) 1.07 (0.99 – 1.15)
Stroke 0.54** (0.37 – 0.81) 0.57*** (0.44 – 0.75) 0.65*** (0.52 – 0.81) 0.76** (0.63 – 0.90)
Without co-morbidity -   -   -   -  
1 co-morbidity 1.02 (0.83 – 1.25) 1.04 (0.89 – 1.23) 1.05 (0.91 – 1.20) 1.10 (0.97 – 1.24)
2 co-morbidities 1.13 (0.93 – 1.38) 1.21* (1.03 – 1.41) 1.19* (1.04 – 1.36) 1.29*** (1.15 – 1.45)
3 co-morbidities 1.25* (1.04 – 1.49) 1.39*** (1.21 – 1.60) 1.41*** (1.25 – 1.59) 1.54*** (1.38 – 1.71)
4 co-morbidities 1.26 (0.93 – 1.69) 1.46** (1.17 – 1.82) 1.42*** (1.18 – 1.73) 1.49*** (1.26 – 1.76)
Test for trend (number of com.)^ 1.08** (1.03 – 1.14) 1.11*** (1.08 – 1.17) 1.13*** (1.09 – 1.17) 1.15*** (1.12 – 1.18)
A&E referral -   -   -   -  
GP referral 1.09 (0.98 – 1.22) 1.00 (0.92 – 1.09) 0.96 (0.89 – 1.03) 0.93* (0.88 – 0.99)
Other referral 1.17 (0.85 – 1.60) 0.84 (0.64 – 1.09) 0.91 (0.74 – 1.13) 0.94 (0.78 – 1.13)
<2 days LoS -   -   -   -  
2–5 days LoS 0.54*** (0.42 – 0.69) 0.82* (0.69 – 0.99) 0.92 (0.79 – 1.08) 1.06 (0.93 – 1.21)
6–11 days LoS 0.52*** (0.41 – 0.66) 0.89 (0.74 – 1.05) 1.14 (0.98 – 1.32) 1.31*** (1.15 – 1.49)
>11 days LoS 0.54*** (0.41 – 0.70) 0.95 (0.79 – 1.14) 1.23** (1.06 – 1.44) 1.42*** (1.25 – 1.62)
<2 days LoS * Time^^ -   -   -   -  
2–5 days LoS * Time^^ 1.07*** (1.05 – 1.09 1.01*** (1.01 – 1.02) 1.01*** (1.00 – 1.01) 1.002*** (1.001 – 1.003)
6–11 days LoS * Time^^ 1.08*** (1.06 – 1.11 1.02*** (1.01 – 1.02) 1.01*** (1.00 – 1.01) 1.002*** (1.001 – 1.003)
>11 days LoS * Time^^ 1.09*** (1.06 – 1.11 1.02*** (1.02 – 1.02) 1.01*** (1.00 – 1.01) 1.002** (1.001 – 1.002)
  1. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001
  2. ^ : Denotes the proportion change in probability of outcome associated with one unit change in continuous variable (e.g. Townsend deprivation score index, number of co-morbidities)
  3. ^^ In days
  4. HR: Hazard Ratio, COPD: Chronic obstructive airways disease, ACS: Acute coronary syndrome, LoS: Length of stay, A&E: Accident and Emergency, GP: General Practitioner.