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Table 3 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with a criterion standard diagnosis of heart failure (n = 173) stratified by ED diagnosis of heart failure.

From: Clinical characteristics of emergency department heart failure patients initially diagnosed as non-heart failure

   ED Diagnosis P-value
   Non-Primary HF N = 58 Primary HF N = 115  
Age   66 (34–88) 70 (30–97) 0.318
Non-white   32 (55.2) 61 (53.0) 0.872
White   26 (44.8) 54 (47.0)  
Male   32 (55.2) 61 (53.0) 0.872
Female   26 (44.8) 54 (47.0)  
History of CHF   43 (74.1) 103 (89.6) 0.014
History of CAD   21 (36.2) 59 (51.3) 0.076
History of hypertension   47 (81.0) 85 (73.9) 0.347
History of valvular heart disease   22 (37.9) 60 (52.2) 0.106
History: cardiomyopathy   20 (34.5) 44 (38.3) 0.739
History of COPD   15 (25.9) 13 (11.3) 0.017
CHF admission in last 6 months   16 (27.6) 29 (25.4) 0.855
Prior EF <55%   11 (55.0) 22 (62.9) 0.582
Positive findings on CXR   47 (81.0) 89 (77.4) 0.696
Systolic blood pressure   144 (82–234) 152 (85–257) 0.915
Diastolic blood pressure   81 (39–140) 84 (40–167) 0.751
Heart rate   95 (52–158) 88 (44–142) 0.177
Respiration rate   20 (12–44) 22 (12–52) 0.481
Oxygen saturation   95 (72–100) 96 (60–100) 0.959
Temperature   97.4 (95.4–101.1) 97.5 (695.0-101.2) 0.848
Symptoms of jugular venous distention   19 (33.3) 39 (33.9) 1.000
Symptoms of peripheral edema   35 (61.4) 74 (64.9) 0.736
Symptoms of dyspnea   54 (93.1) 112 (97.4) 0.226
Symptoms of orthopnea   38 (65.5) 73 (63.5) 0.867
Symptoms of proxysmal nocturnal dyspnea   22 (38.6) 43 (37.7) 1.000
LVH   16 (31.4) 34 (33.7) 0.856
QRS > 120 ms   15 (29.4) 38 (37.6) 0.370
Left Bundle Branch Block   1 (2.0) 8 (7.9) 0.273
Physician identified S3   8 (14.3) 22 (19.6) 0.522
Electronically detected S3   15 (34.1) 30 (33.7) 1.000
Median BNP   518 (5–5000) 764 (31.7–5000) 0.038
Ejection Fraction Normal 4 (19.0) 9 (14.8) 0.059
  Mild 9 (42.9) 18 (29.5)  
  Moderate 6 (28.6) 10 (16.4)  
  Severe 2 (9.5) 24 (39.3)