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Table 2 Relative ratings on severity and frequency level of general organizational stressors and ambulance-specific stressors

From: Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: A nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

  Severity items Frequency items
  Mean Significance* SD Mean Significance * SD
a) Time pressure 4.3   1.4 2.1   2.2
Frequent interruptions 4.6   1.7 2.0   3.0
Frequent change simple to demanding tasks 4.3   1.7 3.2   3.7
Excessive paperwork 4.1   2.0 1.4   2.5
Meeting deadline 4.2   1.9 1.5   2.7
Insufficient personal time 4.2   2.0 2.2   3.2
b) Challenging job tasks 4.4   1.3 2.6 a,c 1.9
Working overtime 3.8   1.9 3.9   3.5
Critical on the spot decisions 4.4   1.7 1.5   2.1
Assigned increased responsibility 4.5   1.9 2.2   2.9
Assignment of new duties 4.5   1.8 1.6   2.4
Perform duties no in job description 4.6   1.8 4.0   3.6
c) Lack of leader-support 5.1 a,b 1.7 2.0   2.3
No participating in decisions 4.8   2.3 1.6   2.5
Lack recognition for good work 5.4   2.1 1.9   2.8
Poor or inadequate supervision 4.9   1.9 2.2   3.1
Difficult working with superior 4.8   2.3 1.5   2.5
Inadequate support by supervisor 5.5   2.3 2.9   3.4
Difficulty getting along with supervisor 5.2   1.9 1.8   2.7
d) Lack of co-worker support 5.4 a,b,c,e 1.7 3.2 a,b,c,e,f 2.9
Fellow workers not doing job 6.0   1.9 3.7   3.4
Covering work for others 4.7   2.0 2.8   3.2
Poorly motivated co-workers 5.4   2.1 3.0   3.4
e) Non-emergency tasks index 4.4 a 1.4 2.8 a,b,c 2.0
Hide feelings towards patients and relatives 4.1   1.8 1.8   2.6
Not being able to express own opinion to patients or relatives 4.3   1.8 1.8   2.8
Medical responsibility in the vehicle 4.5   1.8 5.6   4.0
Negative attitude from relatives about the job you are doing 4.9   2.0 1.2   2.1
The cumulative effect of driving chronically ill patients 4.4   1.9 3.7   3.6
f) Serious Operational tasks index 5.8 a,b,c,d,e 1.4 2.8 a,b,c 2.0
Take care of seriously injured and dying patients 5.2   1.8 4.7   3.5
Uncertainty about what you will meet on the scene of accident 5.2   1.8 3.6   3.2
Incident with seriously injured friend or people you know 6.3   2.0 1.0   1.8
Incident with seriously injured children 6.6   1.8 1.6   2.1
Deal with acting-out and threatening patients 6.0   1.8 1.8   2.3
Driving under difficult conditions 5.3   1.9 4.2   3.6
g) Physical demands 5.4 a,b,c,e 1.9 5.7 a,b,c,d,e,f 3.3
Heavy lifting 5.0   2.0 6.0   3.6
Carrying out the work under difficult conditions 5.4   2.0 5.3   3.5
Working in bent or twisted positions 5.6   1.9 5.6   3.6
  1. Note. * Each variable (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) was individually tested against all other variables by a series of paired sample t-tests. Level of significance was set at p < .01. A variable with a mean score followed by "a, b" in the significance row indicates that this variable is significant higher than variable a and variable b at p < .01.
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