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Table 1 Description of categories of the Eindhoven Classification Model: PRISMA-medical version[19, 20]

From: The nature and causes of unintended events reported at ten emergency departments

Main category   Subcategory Code Description
Latent conditions     
Technical   External T-ex Technical failures beyond the control and responsibility of the investigating organisation.
   Design TD Failures due to poor design of equipment, software, labels or forms.
   Construction TC Correct design, which was not constructed properly or was set up in inaccessible areas.
   Materials TM Material defects not classified under TD or TC.
Organisational   External O-ex Failures at an organisational level beyond the control and responsibility of the investigating organisation, such as in another department of area (address by collaborative systems).
   Transfer of knowledge OK Failures resulting from inadequate measures taken to ensure that situational or domain-specific knowledge or information is transferred to all new or inexperienced staff.
   Protocols OP Failures relating to the quality and availability of the protocols within the department (too complicated, inaccurate, unrealistic, absent, or poorly presented).
   Management priorities OM Internal management decisions in which safety is relegated to an inferior position when faced with conflicting demands or objectives. This is a conflict between production needs and safety. Example: decisions that are made about staffing levels.
   Culture OC Failures resulting from collective approach and its attendant modes of behaviour to risks in the investigating organisation.
Active errors     
Human   External H-ex Human failures originating beyond the control and responsibility of the investigating organisation. This could apply to individuals in another department.
  Knowledge-based behaviour Knowledge-based behaviour HKK The inability of an individual to apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation. Example: a trained blood bank technologist who is unable to solve a complex antibody identification problem.
  Rule-based behaviour Qualifications HRQ The incorrect fit between an individuals training or education and a particular task. Example: expecting a technician to solve the same type of difficult problems as a technologists.
   Coordination HRC A lack of task coordination within a healthcare team in an organisation. Example: an essential task not being performed because everyone thought that someone else had completed the task.
   Verification HRV The correct and complete assessment of a situation including related conditions of the patient and materials to be used before starting the intervention. Example: failure to correctly identify a patient by checking the wristband.
   Intervention HRI Failures that result from faulty task planning and execution. Example: washing red cells by the same protocol as platelets.
   Monitoring HRM Monitoring a process or patient status. Example: a trained technologist operating an automated instrument and not realising that a pipette dispenses reagents is clogged.
  Skill-based behaviour Slips HSS Failures in performance of highly developed skills. Example: a technologist adding drops of reagents to a row of test tubes and than missing the tube or a computer entry error.
   Tripping HST Failures in whole body movements. These errors are often referred to as " slipping, tripping, or falling". Examples: a blood bag slipping out of one' s hands and breaking or tripping over a loose tile on the floor.
Other factors     
Patient related   Patient related factor PRF Failures related to patient characteristics or conditions, which are beyond the control of staff and influence treatment.
Other   Unclassifiable X Failures that cannot be classified in any other category.