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Table 1 Study subjects

From: Prospective study of recovery from copperhead snake envenomation: an observational study

Characteristic Number of subjects (n, %)
Enrolled subjects 20 (100%)
 Completed 28 days of study participation 20 (100%)
Sex  
 Male (n, %) 10 (50%)
Age  
 Age (years) (median, range) 37 (19–76)
 Aged ≥ 65 years 3 (15%)
Race and ethnicity  
 White race 16 (80%)
 Black or African American race 4 (20%)
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity 0 (0%)
Study site  
 Duke University Medical Center (Durham, NC) 12 (60%)
 East Carolina University/Vidant Medical Center (Greenville, NC) 3 (15%)
 St. Joseph Regional Health Center (Bryan, TX) 3 (15%)
 Scott and White Memorial Hospital (Temple, TX) 1 (5%)
 University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA) 1 (5%)
Envenomation location  
 Upper extremity 10 (50%)
Envenomation severity at enrollment  
 Mild 1 (5%)
 Moderate 16 (80%)
 Severe 3 (15%)
Treatment  
 Treated with antivenom 15 (75%)
 Total antivenom dose (vials) (among patients receiving) (median, range) 14 (4, 24)
Duration of Hospitalization (hours) (median, range) 35.5 (5, 49)
  1. For the purposes of this study, envenomation severity was determined based on the number of major joints (wrist, elbow, ankle, knee) involved in limb swelling. Swelling that did not cross any major joints (e.g. confined to the hand) was defined as “mild.” Swelling that crossed one major joint (e.g. involving the hand and forearm) was defined as “moderate,” and swelling that crossed two major joints (e.g. from hand to upper arm) was defined as “severe”.