Skip to main content

Table 2 Cox regression model for the association between predictors and 90-day mortality in older patients visiting the ED

From: Prediction of 90-day mortality in older patients after discharge from an emergency department: a retrospective follow-up study

   Univariate Multivariate
ED characteristics Eventsa (Total) HR (95 % CI) P-value HR (95 % CI) P-value
Age 347 (3291) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) <0.001 1.06 (1.04–1.08) <0.001
Sex
 Female 173 (1748) ref ref ref ref
 Male 174 (1543) 1.14 (0.93–1.41) 0.219 1.15 (0.92–1.43) 0.231
Time of ED visit
 Day 08.00 h-15.59 h 165 (1677) ref ref ref ref
 Evening 16.00 h-23.59 h 127 (1254) 1.03 (0.82–1.30) 0.799 0.98 (0.77–1.24) 0.857
 Night 00.00 h-07.59 h 55 (360) 1.62 (1.19–2.20) 0.002 1.27 (0.91–1.78) 0.163
Way of arrivalb
 Self-referral 58 (654) ref ref ref ref
 Brought in by ambulance 157 (1159) 1.58 (1.17–2.13) 0.003 1.33 (0.95–1.84) 0.096
 General practitioner 102 (1108) 1.04 (0.75–1.43) 0.833 0.91 (0.64–1.29) 0.596
 LUMC internal 23 (338) 0.75 (0.46–1.22) 0.243 0.81 (0.49–1.35) 0.424
 Other Hospital 7 (28) 3.04 (1.39–6.66) 0.005 2.74 (1.22–6.11) 0.014
Presentation
 Limb problems 37 (608) ref ref ref ref
 Unwell 99 (598) 2.93 (2.01–4.28) <0.001 1.99 (1.23–3.20) 0.005
 Chest pain 20 (346) 0.96 (0.56–1.65) 0.882 0.54 (0.29–1.00) 0.051
 Shortness of breath 56 (304) 3.22 (2.13–4.88) <0.001 1.43 (0.83–2.45) 0.195
 Abdominal pain 26 (214) 2.09 (1.26–3.45) 0.004 1.68 (0.98–2.89) 0.061
 Collapsed 19 (168) 1.96 (1.13–3.42) 0.017 1.29 (0.68–2.44) 0.439
 Falls 10 (122) 1.38 (0.69–2.77) 0.369 1.19 (0.58–2.45) 0.663
 Wounds 8 (108) 1.22 (0.57–2.62) 0.610 1.47 (0.67–3.21) 0.332
 Palpitations 3 (101) 0.49 (0.15–1.58) 0.229 0.36 (0.11–1.26) 0.110
 Other 69 (722) 1.61 (1.08–2.40) 0.019 1.44 (0.93–2.23) 0.100
Consulting medical specialty
 Surgical 99 (1371) ref ref ref ref
 Non-surgical 248 (1920) 1.85 (1.47–2.34) <0.001 1.55 (1.13–2.14) 0.007
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 ≤100 18 (109) 1.62 (1.00–2.61) 0.049 1.05 (0.64–1.72) 0.849
 101–199 250 (2313) ref ref ref ref
 ≥200 16 (101) 1.52 (0.92–2.52) 0.104 1.15 (0.69–1.94) 0.589
 Not measured 63 (768) 0.75 (0.57–0.99) 0.044 1.55 (0.79–3.02) 0.202
Heart rate (BPM)
 ≤50 5 (55) 0.90 (0.37–2.17) 0.807 0.67 (0.27–1.68) 0.394
 51–100 214 (2093) ref ref ref ref
 101–110 28 (187) 1.48 (1.00–2.20) 0.049 1.20 (0.80–1.80) 0.375
 111–129 27 (144) 1.93 (1.30–2.89) 0.001 1.46 (0.94–2.27) 0.090
 ≥130 12 (92) 1.29 (0.72–2.31) 0.392 1.41 (0.76–2.61) 0.277
 Not measured 61 (720) 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.192 1.51 (0.72–3.14) 0.272
Respiration rate (bpm)
 ≤8 1 (5) 2.65 (0.36–19.38) 0.337 2.07 (0.27–15.66) 0.481
 9–14 33 (381) ref ref ref ref
 15–20 95 (907) 1.21 (0.82–1.80) 0.343 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 0.507
 21–29 68 (417) 1.95 (1.29–2.96) 0.002 1.63 (1.06–2.52) 0.027
 ≥30 31 (99) 4.16 (2.55–6.80) <0.001 2.21 (1.25–3.92) 0.007
 Not measured 119 (1482) 0.92 (0.62–1.35) 0.650 0.95 (0.61–1.47) 0.819
Oxygen saturation (%)
 ≤90 22 (81) 3.08 (1.99–4.78) <0.001 1.96 (1.19–3.23) 0.008
 91–94 43 (218) 2.09 (1.51–2.90) <0.001 1.63 (1.16–2.31) 0.005
 ≥95 218 (2217) ref ref ref ref
 Not measured 64 (775) 0.84 (0.63–1.11) 0.212 1.22 (0.65–2.27) 0.534
Temperature (°C)
 ≤34.9 14 (42) 3.43 (2.00–5.89) <0.001 2.27 (1.28–4.01) 0.005
 35.0–38.4 230 (2023) ref ref ref ref
 ≥38.5 14 (149) 0.82 (0.48–1.40) 0.461 0.43 (0.24–0.75) 0.003
 Not measured 89 (1077) 0.72 (0.57–0.92) 0.009 1.12 (0.81–1.54) 0.498
Pain score (NRS)
 0–3 181 (1645) ref ref ref ref
 4–6 110 (1136) 0.87 (0.68–1.10) 0.240 1.24 (0.95–1.61) 0.114
 7–10 36 (337) 0.97 (0.68–1.38) 0.847 1.55 (1.03–2.32) 0.034
 Not measured 20 (173) 1.06 (0.67–1.68) 0.811 0.93 (0.58–1.49) 0.754
Blood testsc
 None performed 29 (770) ref ref ref ref
 Performed 318 (2521) 3.52 (2.41–5.15) <0.001 3.44 (2.13–5.56) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ED emergency department, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, ref reference category, BP blood pressure, BPM beats per minute, bpm breaths per minute, °C degrees Celcius, NRS numeric rating scale
  2. Bold formatting has been used to mark statistical significant P-values
  3. a‘Events’ represent the number of deaths in each category within 90 days after ED admittance
  4. bWay of arrival was unknown in 4 patients (data not shown in table). No patients died in this category. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed HR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.80-1.04; P value 0.178). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed HR 0.00 (95 % CI 0.00-9.37*10102; P-value 0.947)
  5. cBlood tests included levels of haemoglobin, thrombocytes, leukocytes, C-reactive protein, sodium, potassium, creatinine, urea, troponin T and/or non fasted glucose