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Table 2 Comparison of demographic and cardiac arrest related characteristics of 310 study participants

From: Epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a developing country-a multicenter cohort study

  No (%) of Patients  
Variables All Patients Non-EMS EMS p-value*
  (n = 310) (n = 181) Ambulance without any life-support (n = 102) Ambulance with life-support (n = 27)  
Age (mean ± SE) 59.2 ± 15.1 58.2 ± 14.9 59.2 ± 15.5 65.3 ± 13.2 0.07
Gender
 Male 205 (66.1) 117 (64.6) 71 (69.6) 17 (63.0) 0.65
 Female 105 (33.9) 64 (35.4) 31 (30.4) 10 (37.0)  
Comorbid conditions      0.09
 Cardiac 179 (57.7) 106 (58.6) 58 (56.9) 15 (55.6)  
 Non cardiac 11 (3.5) 4 (2.2) 7 (6.9) 0 (0)
 Both 23 (7.4) 13 (7.2) 5 (4.9) 5 (18.5)
 None 97 (31.3) 58 (32.0) 32 (31.4) 7 (25.9)
Location of arrest
 Residence 241 (77.7) 146 (80.7) 76 (74.5) 19 (70.4) 0.30
 Public area 69 (22.3) 35 (19.3) 26 (25.5) 8 (29.6)  
Witnessed arrest
 Yes 288 (92.9) 170 (93.9) 93 (91.2) 25 (92.6) 0.68
 No 22 (7.1) 11 (6.1) 9 (8.8) 2 (7.4)  
Type of witness      
 Layperson 284 (91.6) 170 (93.9) 90 (88.2) 24 (88.9) 0.15
 Health care personnel 4 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.9) 1 (3.7)  
 None 22 (7.1) 11 (6.1) 9 (8.8) 2 (7.4)  
ROSC
 Pre-hospital 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0.006
 Hospital 7 (2.3) 4 (2.2) 1 (1.0) 2 (7.4)  
 No ROSC 302 (97.4) 177 (97.8) 101 (99.0) 24 (88.9)  
Outcomea(end of ED stay)
 Alive 5 (1.6) 2 (1.1) 1 (1.0) 2 (7.4) 0.04
 Dead 305 (98.4) 179 (98.9) 101 (99.0) 25 (92.6)  
  1. Abbreviations: EMS emergency medical services, SE standard error, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, ED emergency department
  2. *Shows comparison between Non-EMS, EMS without any life-support interventions and EMS with life-support interventions
  3. aIndicates outcomes on hospital admission