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Table 3 Comparison of life-support interventions received by cardiac arrest patients in Karachi, Pakistan (N = 310)

From: Epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a developing country-a multicenter cohort study

  No (%) of Patients  
Variables All Patients Non-EMS EMS p-value*
  (n = 310) (n = 181) Ambulance without life-support (n = 102) Ambulance with life-support (n = 27)  
Time(min) to reach hospital
 Median (IQR) 25 (15, 35) 23 (15, 30) 30 (20, 40.2) 30 (18, 45) <0.001
Life-support interventions
 Pre-hospital 25 (8.1) 2 (1.1) 2 (2.0) 21 (77.8)  
 Hospital 48 (15.5) 34 (18.8) 12 (11.8) 2 (7.4) <0.001
 None 237 (76.5) 145 (80.1) 88 (86.3) 4 (14.8)  
Time to first intervention
 Median (IQR) 20.5 (12, 34.7) 18 (11, 30) 26 (17.2,51) 15 (9, 44) 0.01
Time to first CPR
 Median(IQR) 20 (12.2, 37.7) 19 (11.2, 28) 42 (22, 55) 16 (11, 44) 0.01
First rhythm
 Shockable 3 (1.0) 3 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0) 0.01
 Non shockable 277 (89.4) 168 (92.8) 84 (82.4) 25 (92.6)  
 Not recorded 30 (9.7) 10 (5.5) 18 (17.6) 2 (7.4)  
CPR
 Pre-hospital 23 (7.4) 2 (1.1) 2 (2.0) 19 (70.4) <0.001
 Hospital 48 (15.5) 33 (18.2) 11 (10.8) 4 (14.8)  
 None 239 (77.1) 146 (80.7) 89 (87.3) 4 (14.8)  
Defibrillation
 Pre-hospital 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0.02
 Hospital 95 (30.6) 56 (30.9) 33 (32.4) 6 (22.2)  
 None 214 (69.0) 125 (69.1) 69 (67.6) 20 (74.1)  
  1. Abbreviations: EMS emergency medical services, IQR interquartile range, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  2. *Shows comparison between Non-EMS, EMS without any life-support interventions and EMS with life-support interventions