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Table 2 Patient Characteristics

From: The effectiveness of prehospital hypertonic saline for hypotensive trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author (Year) Sample Sizea Inclusion Exclusion Age – Years Mean (SD) Gender – Male Number (%) Presenting SBP Mean (SD) TBI Number (%) Presenting GCS Mean (SD) Blunt Trauma Number (%)
  I C Total Lost to Follow-up    I C I C I C I C I C I C
Bulger et al. (2011) 256 375 631 2 1. 15 years or older 2. Prehospital SBP <70 mmHg 3. Prehospital SBP between 70 and 90 mmHg with a heart rate of 108 or less 1. Known or suspected pregnancy 2. Age less than 15 years 3. Out of hospital CPR 4. Administration of >2 L of crystalloid, colloid or blood products pre-enrollment 5. Severe hypothermia 6. Drowning, asphyxia due to hanging 7. Burns more than 20% BSA 8. Isolated penetrating head injury 9. Inability to obtain IV access. 10. Time of dispatch to study intervention more than 4 h 11. Known prisoner, interfacility transfers 36.8 (16.1) 36.2 (16.4) 205 (81%) 291 (77.4%) 54.1 (35.3) 58.1 (32.2) None None 10 (5) 9.8 (5) 164 (64.1%) 227 (60.4%)
Jousi et al. (2010) 17 20 37 NA 1. Patients in whom it was estimated to develop significant prehospital hypovolemia (> 1000 ml of blood loss) either from actual clinical condition or MOI. 2. MOI included multiple trauma, penetrating trauma of the head, neck, chest or abdomen, fracture of pelvic ring or femur, or a suspicion of injury of large proximal vessels of the extremities 1. Patients who received >500 ml crystalloid before assessment 37 (18) 50 (22) 12 (71%) 17 (85%) 118 (32) 125 (26) 5 (29%) 4 (20%) 12.6c (3.4) 13.3c (3.1) 15 (88%) 18 (90%)
Cooper et al. (2004) 114 115 229 2 1. Coma due to blunt head trauma 2. A GCS score of less than 9 3. Hypotension (SBP <100 mmHg) 4. Patients with multisystem trauma were included 1. Penetrating trauma, 2. Younger than 18 years 3. Were pregnant 4. No IV access 5. Serious pre-morbidity disease on medical identity bracelet 6. Had peripheral edema 7. Close proximity receiving hospital (“scoop and run”) 8. Had absent sinus rhythm or cardiac arrest 38 (19) 37 (19) 75 (66) 76 (66) 72b (14.99) 56.2b (24.51) All participants All participants 4.5** (1.15) 4.5** (1.15) All participants All participants
Vassar et al. (1993a) 50 45 95 0 1. Injured patients with systolic blood pressures less than 90 mmHg 1. Patients were asystolic or were undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation 2. Lacked a sinus complex on electrocardiogram 3. Appeared to be less than 18 years of age 4. Were seen more than 2 h from the time of injury 5. Were pregnant 6. Were known to have a history of seizures or a bleeding disorder 7. Appeared to have pre-existing hepatic, cardiac or renal disease as indicated by the ascites or peripheral edema. 8. Were injured as a result of a burn 9. Had a blood pressure of more than 90 mmHg by the time that IV access was established 10. Lacked IV access 31 (13) 37 (18) NA NA 66 (27) 72 (15) NA NA 8 (5) 9 (6) 41 (82%) 36 (80%)
Vassar et al. (1993b) 85 84 169 0 1. Trauma patients undergoing ground ambulance transport to the medical center if their systolic blood pressure fell to 90 mmHg or less at any time during the transport. Same as above 32 (15) 31 (12) NA NA 65 (29) 64 (32) NA NA 12 (4) 12 (4) 49 (57.6%) 53 (63.1)
  1. Note: MOI mechanism of injury, NA not available, TBI traumatic brain injury
  2. aincludes hypertonic and isotonic saline arms only. If it is a three arm trial, other arms (e.g., hypertonic saline and dextran, etc.) are not included
  3. bMean and standard deviation calculated based on sample size, median and interquartile range, assuming symmetrical distribution of the data
  4. c Unclear if this is presenting GCS