Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient Characteristics in Development Dataset (N = 8129) and Validation Dataset (N = 8907)

From: Predictive value of quick surgical airway assessment for trauma (qSAT) score for identifying trauma patients requiring surgical airway in emergency room

Variable Development Dataset Validation Dataset
Surgical Airway Management   Surgical Airway Management  
No Yes P-value No Yes P-value
N (%) 8019 (98.6) 110 (1.4)   8801 (98.8) 106 (1.2)  
Age, years, median (IQR) 57 (34–71) 44 (26–66) 0.001 61 (38–74) 50 (27–70) 0.006
Age group    0.026    0.056
 16–59 y 4308 (53.7) 71 (64.5)   4245 (48.2) 61 (57.5)  
  ≥ 60 y 3711 (46.3) 39 (35.5)   4556 (51.8) 45 (42.5)  
 Missing 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
Male sex 5678 (70.8) 91 (82.7) 0.006 6156 (69.9) 92 (86.8) 0.006
 Missing 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
Vital signs on hospital arrival, median (IQR)
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 122 (90–151) 128 (105–150) 0.307 125 (93–153) 129 (96–155) 0.493
 Missing 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Heart rate, bpm 95 (78–116) 101 (80–113) 0.399 93 (77–113) 100 (80–120) 0.061
  Missing 135 (1.7) 1 (0.9)   143 (1.6) 4 (3.8)  
 GCS score 8 (4–13) 8 (4–13) 0.933 8 (4–13) 7 (4–14) 0.669
  Missing 277 (0.6) 4 (0.6)   292 (3.3) 7 (6.6)  
Variable Development Dataset Validation Dataset
Surgical Airway Management   Surgical Airway Management  
No Yes P-value No Yes P-value
Revised Trauma Score (RTS), median (IQR) 6 (5–7) 6 (4–7) 0.775 6 (5–8) 6 (5–8) 0.480
 Missing 893 (11.1) 16 (14.5)   969 (11.0) 19 (17.9)  
Injury Severity Score (ISS), median (IQR) 26 (20–36) 27 (20–34) 0.803 25 (19–35) 27 (18–35) 0.618
 Missing 132 (16.4) 3 (2.7)   130 (1.5) 0 (0)  
Admission to the tertiary emergency hospitals 7056 (88.0) 92 (83.6) 0.164 7675 (87.2) 86 (81.1) 0.063
Injured region, AIS score      
 Head, median (IQR) 4 (0–5) 3 (0–4) 0.002 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0.507
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 5417 (67.4) 64 (58.2) 0.037 5830 (66.2) 71 (67.0) 0.873
 Face, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 1 (0–2) <  0.001 0 (0–0) 1 (0–2) <  0.001
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 1040 (13.0) 47 (42.7) <  0.001 1237 (14.1) 44 (41.5) <  0.001
 Neck, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) <  0.001 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) <  0.001
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 58 (0.7) 11 (10.0) <  0.001 64 (0.7) 8 (7.5) <  0.001
 Chest, median (IQR) 0 (0–4) 0 (0–4) 0.882 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.539
Variable Development Dataset Validation Dataset
Surgical Airway Management   Surgical Airway Management  
No Yes P value No Yes P value
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 3750 (46.8) 50 (45.5) 0.785 4039 (45.9) 50 (47.2) 0.793
 Abdomen, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.012 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.245
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 1853 (23.1) 14 (12.7) 0.010 1891 (21.5) 18 (17.0) 0.261
 Spine, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–2) 0.002 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.261
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 1438 (17.9) 32 (29.1) 0.003 2090 (23.7) 29 (27.4) 0.385
 Upper extremities 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.097 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0) 0.231
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 1623 (20.2) 27 (24.5) 0.265 1919 (21.8) 19 (17.9) 0.336
 Pelvis and lower extremities,
 median (IQR)
0 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 0.104 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.518
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 3043 (37.9) 33 (30.0) 0.088 3235 (36.8) 35 (33.0) 0.427
 Surface, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.558 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.260
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 23 (0.3) 1 (0.9) 0.232 26 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0.575
 Cervical spine, median (IQR) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 0.510 0 (0–0) 0 (0–4) 0.440
  AIS ≥ 2, n (%) 652 (8.1) 24 (21.8) <  0.001 920 (10.5) 24 (22.6) <  0.001
  1. Data are number (%) or median (IQR). GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale