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Table 2 Descriptive statistics and changes in work factors, respondent well-being, and quality of care (provider survey)

From: Effects of work conditions on provider mental well-being and quality of care: a mixed-methods intervention study in the emergency department

Study outcomes Scale range No. of items Baseline (T1) Follow-Up (T2) Effect size t-test
Mean SD Mean SD (Cohen’s d) t df p
Work system factors
 Patient stressors 1–5 3 4.10 .63 4.11 .71 .02 −.10 .40 .921
 Job control 1–5 4 2.63 .76 2.90 .74 .36 −2.57 39 .014
 Participation opportunities 1–5 4 1.81 .70 1.83 .70 .03 −.24 39 .813
 Work overload 1–5 3 4.37 .61 4.37 .48 .08 40 .937
 Personnel resources 1–5 2 1.93 .70 1.76 .75 .23 1.13 39 .265
 Information problems 1–5 3 3.20 .79 3.26 .80 .08 −.55 40 .583
 Uncertainty 1–5 4 3.46 .65 3.64 .61 .29 −1.73 39 .091
 Overtime (in hours) 1 7.79 3.93 5.93 4.92 .42 3.00 13 .010
 Social support 1–5 2 3.15 .87 2.88 .89 .31 3.27 40 .002
 Supervisor feedback 1–5 2 2.05 .90 2.30 .93 .27 −1.96 39 .058
Provider well-being
 Emotional exhaustion 1–6 4 4.19 .94 4.21 1.03 .02 −.18 40 .855
 Depersonalization 1–6 4 3.18 1.23 3.54 1.22 .29 −2.29 40 .027
 Depressive symptoms 1–4 2 1.90 1.48 2.22 1.53 .21 −1.59 40 .119
 Job satisfaction 1–7 1 4.42 1.24 3.79 1.49 .46 2.60 37 .013
 Turnover intentions 1–5 1 2.29 1.01 2.72 1.28 .37 −3.12 40 .003
Quality of care (ED provider reports)
 Frequency of errors 1–5 3 1.98 .74 2.05 .75 .09 −.54 40 .591
 Patient safety 1–5 1 2.71 .78 2.50 .71 .28 1.90 40 .064
  1. Legend. N = 41 participants; ED: emergency department, SD: standard deviation, d: delta, t: t-test statistic, df: degrees of freedom, p: probability level; bold if p < .05