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Table 2 Age, treatment, and disposition of patients with acute recreational drug toxicity

From: Gender differences in acute recreational drug toxicity: a case series from Oslo, Norway

  Opioid among toxic agents No opioid among toxic agents
Outpatient clinic Hospital ED Outpatient clinic Hospital ED
Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%)
Agea,b 36 (25–44)*** 38 (30–46) 29 (23–31)* 35 (27–41) 29 (23–38)* 31 (25–42) 30.5 (23–35) 31.5 (24–38)
Brought by ambulance 141 (62.4) 613 (62.7) 21 (100) 66 (93.0) 122 (45.7) 356 (49.2) 44 (93.6) 129 (93.5)
Treatment requiredc 86 (37.6)* 292 (29.6) 15 (71.4) 54 (76.1) 21 (7.8) 90 (12.3) 31 (66.0) 94 (68.1)
Intubated -* 15 (21.1)f 1 (0.1)g 3 (6.4)*g 29 (21.0)g
Naloxone 71 (31.0) 266 (27.0) 14 (66.7) 43 (60.6) 7 (2.6) 24 (3.3) 11 (23.4) 44 (31.9)
Flumazenil 1 (0.4) 3 (0.3) 6 (28.6) 23 (32.4) 11 (23.4) 32 (23.2)
Sedation 3 (1.3) 6 (0.6) -* 15 (21.1) 6 (2.2) 34 (4.6) 12 (25.5) 42 (30.4)
Length of staya 4:36 (2:36–6:04) 4:44 (2:45–6:31) 14:56* (4:17–33:45) 21:25 (11:14–51:06) 2:30 (1:21–4:37) 2:44 (1:24–4:40) 9:11 (5:13–20:45) 12:24 (6:17–27:37)
Disposition
Admitted critical care unit 18 (85.7) 68 (95.8) 40 (85.1) 117 (84.8)
Admitted psychiatric ward 3 (1.3) 6 (0.6) 1 (4.8) 18 (6.7) 65 (8.9) 1 (2.1) 1 (0.7)
Admitted otherd 44 (19.2) 170 (17.2) 1 (4.8) 61 (22.6) 152 (20.7) 2 (4.3) 11 (8.0)
Medically discharged 143 (62.4) 638 (64.7) 138 (51.1) 383 (52.3) 2 (4.3) 2 (1.4)
Self-discharge 39 (17.0) 171 (17.3) 1 (4.8) 3 (4.2) 53 (19.6) 133 (18.1) 2 (4.3) 7 (5.1)
Total 229 (100) 986 (100)e 21 (100) 71 (100) 270 (100) 733 (100) 47 (100) 138 (100)
  1. Percentages refer to total at the bottom of the columns
  2. aMedian (interquartile range)
  3. bMissing: 16 in outpatient opioid group (females: n = 226; males: n = 973), 2 in hospital opioid group (males: n = 69), 23 in outpatient non-opioid group (females: n = 265; males: n = 715), 5 in hospital non-opioid group (females: n = 46; males: n = 134)
  4. cAny kind of treatment other than mere observation
  5. dFrom outpatient clinic: transferred to hospital emergency department. From hospital ED: admitted to hospital department other than critical care unit or psychiatric ward
  6. eOne patient with unknown disposition
  7. fIn 13 cases also sedated
  8. gAll were also sedated
  9. ED: emergency department
  10. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 for comparisons between genders