Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Clinical features in patients with acute recreational drug toxicity

From: Gender differences in acute recreational drug toxicity: a case series from Oslo, Norway

  Opioid among toxic agents No opioid among toxic agents
Outpatient clinic Hospital ED Outpatient clinic Hospital ED
Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%)
Cardiac arresta 1 (4.8) 7 (9.9) 1 (2.1) 1 (0.7)
Tachypnoea (RR > 20)a 8 (3.5) 49 (5.0) 5 (23.8) 9 (12.7) 21 (7.8) 70 (9.5) 8 (17.0) 23 (16.7)
Bradypnoea (RR < 10)a 42 (18.3) 144 (14.6) 2 (9.5) 10 (14.1) 2 (0.7) 10 (1.4) 3 (6.4) 4 (2.9)
Tachycardia (HR > 99)a 41 (17.9) 181 (18.4) 3 (14.3) 20 (28.2) 88 (32.6) 251 (34.2) 11 (23.4) 41 (29.7)
Bradycardia (HR < 50)a 4 (1.7) 28 (2.8) 3 (14.3) 6 (8.5) 1 (0.4) 8 (1.1) 2 (4.3) 12 (8.7)
Hypertension (SBP ≥ 180) 2 (0.9) 5 (0.5) 2 (9.5) 2 (2.8) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.7) 5 (10.6) 14 (10.1)
Hypotension (SBP ≤ 90) 25 (10.9)*** 38 (3.9) 3 (14.3) 9 (12.7) 9 (3.3) 19 (2.6) 13 (27.7) 19 (13.8)
Hyperthermia (tp ≥ 39.0 °C) 1 (0.4) 10 (1.0) 1 (4.8) 7 (9.9) 3 (1.1) 5 (0.7) 2 (4.3) 3 (2.2)
GCS scorea,b
15 67 (29.3) 267 (27.2) 6 (30.0) 17 (25.8) 128 (47.8) 341 (47.0) 11 (24.4) 41 (30.8)
10–14 138 (60.3) 614 (62.5) 4 (20.0) 18 (27.3) 121 (45.1) 305 (42.1) 12 (26.7) 27 (20.3)
8–9 14 (6.1) 72 (7.3) 2 (10.0) 6 (9.1) 9 (3.4) 51 (7.0) 6 (13.3) 11 (8.3)
3–7 10 (4.4) 30 (3.1) 8 (40.0) 25 (37.9) 10 (3.7) 28 (3.9) 16 (35.6) 54 (40.6)
Vomiting 8 (3.5) 21 (2.1) 1 (4.8) 3 (4.2) 15 (5.6) 38 (5.2) 6 (12.8) 14 (10.1)
Headache 6 (2.6) 19 (1.9) 4 (5.6) 12 (4.4) 16 (2.2) -* 13 (9.4)
Anxiety 4 (1.7) 17 (1.7) 6 (28.6) 19 (26.8) 33 (12.2) 69 (9.4) 29 (61.7)* 58 (42.0)
Hallucinations 4 (1.7) 14 (1.4) 4 (5.6) 17 (6.3) 59 (8.0) 10 (21.3) 18 (13.0)
Agitation 28 (12.2) 102 (10.3) 6 (28.6) 29 (40.8) 74 (27.4) 209 (28.5) 17 (36.2) 54 (39.1)
Psychosis 3 (1.3) 17 (1.7) 1 (4.8) 2 (2.8) 23 (8.5)* 100 (13.6) 5 (10.6) 12 (8.7)
Seizures 3 (1.3) 10 (1.0) 6 (8.5) 5 (1.9) 13 (1.8) 8 (17.0)* 8 (5.8)
Cerebellar features 2 (0.2) 2 (2.8) 1 (0.1) 2 (4.3) 5 (3.6)
Palpitations 1 (0.4) 4 (0.4) 1 (4.8) 3 (4.2) 15 (5.6) 34 (4.6) 1 (2.1) 5 (3.6)
Chest pain 3 (1.3) 20 (2.0) 3 (4.2) 11 (4.1) 37 (5.0) 1 (2.1) 11 (8.0)
Arrhythmias 2 (0.2) 8 (11.3) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.4) 2 (4.3) 9 (6.5)
Lactate (mmol/L)a,c,d 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 1.1 (0.9–2.3) 1.7 (1.3–3.8) 2.0 (1.2–4.8)
Peak CK (IU/L)c,e 124 (80–175)** 366 (147–1270) 129 (78–285)* 233 (140–434)
Peak creatinine (mmol/L)c,f 58 (55–68)** 80 (59–105) 68 (61–74)*** 82 (71–97)
Total 229 (100) 986 (100) 21 (100) 71 (100) 270 (100) 733 (100) 47 (100) 138 (100)
  1. Percentages refer to total at the bottom of the column
  2. aOn presentation
  3. bMissing: 6 in hospital opioid group (females: n = 20; males: n = 66), 7 in hospital non-opioid group (females: n = 45; males: n = 133)
  4. cMedian (interquartile range)
  5. dMissing: 51 in hospital opioid group (females: n = 11; males: n = 30), 77 in hospital non-opioid group (females: n = 26; males: n = 82)
  6. eMissing: 49 in hospital opioid group (females: n = 8; males: n = 35), 103 in hospital non-opioid group (females: n = 21; males: n = 61)
  7. fMissing: 28 in hospital opioid group (females: n = 13; males: n = 51), 69 in hospital non-opioid group (females: n = 31; males: n = 85)
  8. CK: creatine kinase; ED: emergency department; GCS: Glasgow Coma Scale; HR: heart rate per minute; RR: respiratory rate per minute; SBP: systolic blood pressure in mmHg; tp: temperature
  9. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 for comparisons between genders