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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Determinants of prehospital lactate in trauma patients: a retrospective cohort study

 All (n = 156)Lactate < 2.5 mmol/L (n = 61)Lactate > 2.5 mmol/L (n = 95)pmissing
Biometric data
 Age (y)44 [24–64]44 [23–66]45 [27–63].642 
 Male Gender (n,%)124 [79.5]48 [78.7]76 [80].842 
Injury characteristics
 Mechanism
  Blunt trauma (n,%)140 [89.7]56 [91.8]84 [88.4].595 
  Sharp trauma (n,%)16 [10.3]5 [8.2]11 [11.6].595 
 Body regions affected
  Head (n,%)84 [53.8]25 [41.0]59 [62.1].0082
  Chest (n,%)73 [46.8]31 [50.8]42 [45.2].5132
  Abdomen (n,%)72 [46.2]29 [47.5]43 [45.3].870 
  Limb (n,%)75 [48.1]29 [47.5]46 [48.4].990 
 Nr of regions affected (n)2 [0–4]2 [0–4]2 [0–4].373 
Lactate
 999-lactate sample (min)66 [46–87]62 [45–80]67 [46–88].42033
 Lactate (mmol/l)3.0 [2.0–4.1]1.8 [0.5–2.2]3.8 [2.7–4.9]<.001 
Indices of end organ perfusion and oxygenation
 Palpable radial pulse [y]138 [88.5]58 [95.1]80 [84.2].042 
 SBP (mmHg)129 [109–149]134 [117–152]123 [102–144].00110
 HR (bpm)88 [66–110]85 [64–106]96 [75–117].02314
 Shock index.72 [.51–.93].61 [.40–.82].80 [.58–1.03]<.00114
 EtCO2 (kPa)4.1 [3.5–5.4]4.1 [2.0–6.0]4.0 [3.2–4.8].39044
 SpO2 (%)97 [93–100]98 [96–100]96 [89–100].02516
Treatments before HEMS
 Circ and resp. support
  Adrenaline6 [3.8]1 [1.6]5 [5.3].405 
  IV fluids14 [9.0]2 [3.3]12 [12.6].050 
 Pain relieving interventions
  IVP and/or morphine87 [55.8]41 [67.2]49 [51.6].031 
   IVP61 [39.1]30 [49.2]31 [32.6].045 
   morphine51 [32.7]23 [37.7]28 [29.5].299 
  Reduction or splintinga29 [18.6]8 [13.1]21 [22.1].207 
 Haemostatic interventions
  Pelvic splint76 [48.7]28 [45.9]48 [50.5].624 
  Compression Bandage or tourniquet14 [9.0]7 [11.5]7 [7.4].402 
  TXA75 [48.1]26 [42.6]49 [51.6].325 
  1. Footnote: Continuous data represented as n [%], nominal data as median [IQR]. amanual reduction of fracture or dislocation and/or Kendrick and/or vacuum splint application. SBP Systolic blood pressure, HR Heart rate, EtCO2 End tidal CO2, SpO2 Percentage oxygen saturation, IV Intravenous, IVP Intravenous paracetamol, TXA Tranexamic acid.