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Table 2 Univariate correlation coefficients of patient characteristics with pre-hospital lactate levels in trauma patients attended by HEMS (n = 156)

From: Determinants of prehospital lactate in trauma patients: a retrospective cohort study

 Lactate (mmol/l)Lactate > 2.5 mmol/l
r [95%CI]pr [95% CI]p
Biometric data
 Age (y).01 [−.15–.16].974−.04 [−.24–.17].643
 Gender (n,%male)−.03 [−.18–13].758−.02 [−.17–.14].844
Injury/disease characteristics
 Mechanism.09 [−.07–.25].255.05 [−.10–.21].500
 Nr Body regions affected.11 [−.05–.26].176.10 [−.06–25].220
  Head (n,%).22 [.07–.37].006.22 [.07–.37].006
  Chest (n,%).01 [−.15–.16].950−.06 [−.21–.10].495
  Abdomen (n,%)−.03 [−.19–.13].718−.02 [−.18–.14].782
  Limb (n,%)−.03 [−.19–.13].688.01 [−.15–.17].915
 999-lactate sample (min).12 [−.04–.27].197.07 [−.09–.23].422
Indices of end-organ perfusion and oxygenation
 Palpable radial pulse [y]−.29 [−.42--.14]<.001−.17 [−.31--.01].038
 SBP (mmHg)−.31 [−.44--.16]<.001−.28 [−.42--.13].001
 HR (bpm).21 [.06–.36].011.19 [−.34–0.03].023
 Shock index.35 [.20–.48]<.001.34 [.19–.47]<.001
 First EtCO2 (kPa)−.16 [−.31–.01].101−.08 [−.24–.08].392
 SpO2−.24 [−.38--.08].005−.19 [−.34--.03].024
Treatments before HEMS
 Circ and resp. support
  Adrenalin.11 [−.04–.27].155.09 [−.06–.25].254
  IV fluids.17 [.01–.31.040.16 [.01–.31].046
 Pain relieving interventions
  IVP and/or morphine−.24 [−.38--.09].003−.19 [−.33--.03].021
   IVP−.18 [−.32--.02].027−.17 [−.31--.01].039
   Morphine−.16 [−.31–.01].040−.09 [−.24–.07].288
  Reduction or splintinga.10 [−.06–.25].227.11 [−.04–.27].161
 Haemostatic interventions
  Pelvic splint.05 [−.10–.21].502.05 [−.11–.20].576
  Compression bandage or tourniquet−.12 [−.27–.01.126−.07 [−.22–.09].384
  TXA.12 [−.04–.27].147.09 [−.07–.24].278
  1. Footnote: aManual reduction of fracture or dislocation and/or Kendrick and/or vacuum splint application. SBP Systolic blood pressure, HR Heart rate, EtCO2 End tidal CO2, SpO2 Percentage oxygen saturation, IV Intravenous, IVP Intravenous paracetamol, TXA Tranexamic acid