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Table 3 Interventions provided by ground ambulance crew (non-HEMS interventions) and HEMS on scene in patients with unexplained LOC attended by HEMS

From: Dispatch of a helicopter emergency medicine service to patients with a sudden, unexplained loss of consciousness of medical origin

  Whole group (n = 127) Direct dispatch (n = 29) Request dispatch (n = 98) p
Non-HEMS interventions
 Antiemetics 24 3 21 .28
 Analgesiaa 21 3 17 .41
 Atropine 1 0 1 .99
 Dextrose 10% 3 0 3 .59
 Naloxone 7 1 6 .69
 Supraglottic airway device 4 0 4 .57
 IV 145 22 123 .016
 IO 4 (HH)
5 (Tib)
3 (HH)
1 (Tib)
1(HH)
4(Tib)
.21
HEMS interventions
 PHEA 73 13 60 .088
 Indication for PHEA
  Reduced GCS (n) 55 12 43 .29
  Airway 10 0 10
  Compromise (n)    
  Unmanageable (n) 7 1 6
  Resp failure (n) 1 0 1
 RSI regime:
  3–2-1b 59 8 46 1.00
  1–1-1c 10 0 10
  Other 6 2 4
 Anticoagulant reversal 1 0 1 .99
 Vasopressor therapy 8 1 7 .68
 Antibiotics/ acyclovir 11 0 11 .067
 Hypertonic saline 27 0 27 .007
  1. Table 3. Displayed are numbers [%]. IV Intravenous, IOI Intraosseous, PHEA Prehospital Emergency Anesthesia, LOC Loss of consciousness, HH Humeral head, Tib Tibia,. a Analgesia: fentanyl (n = 2), Morphine (n = 2), Ketamine (n = 3), and paracetamol (n = 14). b Fentanyl 3 mcg/kg, Ketamine 2 mg/kg and Rocuronium 1 mg/kg. c Fentanyl 1 mcg/kg, Ketamine 1 mg/kg and Rocuronium 1 mg/kg HR.