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Table 2 Baseline characteristics for Level-1/2/3 Trauma Centers

From: Identifying trauma patients with benefit from direct transportation to Level-1 trauma centers

  Level-1 Trauma Centers Level-2 Trauma Centers Level-3 Trauma Centers Missing
N 226,640 137,398 24,807  
Age (median [IQR]) 51 [32, 68] 54 [34, 71] 58 [37, 75] 0.0
Male (%) 150,334 (66.3) 87,838 (63.9) 14,719 (59.3) 0.0
Charlson comorbidty index > 2 6189 (2.7) 4181 (3.0) 945 (3.8) 0.0
ISS (median [IQR]) 10 [6, 17] 10 [5, 17] 9 [5, 14] 0.0
ISS > 15 (%) 77,001 (34.0) 39,054 (28.4) 5150 (20.8) 0.0
AIS Head > 2 (%) 63,055 (27.8) 36,000 (26.2) 5264 (21.2) 0.0
AIS Thorax > 2 (%) 55,170 (24.3) 29,675 (21.6) 4736 (19.1) 0.0
AIS Face > 2 (%) 2391 (1.1) 1103 (0.8) 152 (0.6) 0.0
AIS Abdomen > 2 (%) 16,388 (7.2) 7422 (5.4) 1015 (4.1) 0.0
AIS Spine > 2 (%) 16,714 (7.4) 9229 (6.7) 1382 (5.6) 0.0
AIS Extremity > 2 (%) 26,714 (11.8) 14,179 (10.3) 2355 (9.5) 0.0
AIS Other > 2 (%) 1000 (0.4) 297 (0.2) 73 (0.3) 0.0
Prehospital features  
 Oxygen saturation (median [IQR]) 98 [95, 99] 97 [95, 99] 97 [95, 98] 45.4
 Respiration rate (median [IQR]) 18 [16, 20] 18 [16, 20] 18 [16, 20] 35.3
 Pulse (median [IQR]) 90 [78, 104] 89 [77, 102] 88 [76, 100] 33.6
 Systolic blood pressure (median [IQR]) 136 [118, 153] 138 [120, 156] 140 [122, 158] 34.2
 Hypotension (SBP < 90) (%) 6291 (4.7) 4172 (4.1) 691 (3.5) 34.2
 Glasgow Coma Score (median [IQR]) 15 [15, 15] 15 [15, 15] 15 [15, 15] 1.5
 Comatose (GCS < 8) (%) 19,352 (8.7) 9251 (6.8) 1192 (4.9) 1.5
 Intubated (%) 10,233 (4.5) 5529 (4.0) 457 (1.8) 0.1
 Travel time to first hospital (median [IQR]) 52 [36, 76] 47 [34, 67] 42 [33, 57] 24.4
Outcome measures  
 Transferred from other hospital (%) 87,684 (38.7) 35,335 (25.7) 2438 (9.8) 0.0
 Length of stay (median [IQR]) 4 [2, 8] 4 [2, 7] 3 [1, 5] 2.3
 In-hospital mortality (%) 12,890 (6.1) 7265 (5.7) 808 (4.5) 8.1