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Table 3 Characteristics of patients who benefit from transportation to a Level-1 trauma centers, based on predicted absolute benefit from the regression model with interaction terms. Harm was defined as more than 1% absolute harm, while benefit was defined as more than 1% absolute benefit

From: Identifying trauma patients with benefit from direct transportation to Level-1 trauma centers

  Harm No benefit/harm Benefit
N 4525 361,092 27,753
Age (median [IQR]) 79 [71, 85] 53 [33, 69] 53 [32, 71]
Male (%) 2717 (60.0) 232,812 (64.5) 20,117 (72.5)
Charlson Comorbidity Index > 1 (%) 3917 (86.6) 29,518 (8.2) 1042 (3.8)
ISS (median [IQR]) 10 [5, 16] 10 [5, 16] 27 [25, 35]
ISS > 15 (%) 1308 (28.9) 94,683 (26.2) 26,522 (95.6)
AIS Head > 3 (%) 701 (15.5) 30,755 (8.5) 20,191 (72.8)
AIS Thorax > 3 (%) 108 (2.4) 10,775 (3.0) 4163 (15.0)
AIS Face > 3 (%) 5 (0.1) 224 (0.1) 220 (0.8)
AIS Abdomen > 3 (%) 41 (0.9) 7668 (2.1) 2606 (9.4)
AIS Spine > 3 (%) 156 (3.4) 5718 (1.6) 926 (3.3)
AIS Extremity > 3 (%) 32 (0.7) 3041 (0.8) 969 (3.5)
AIS Other > 3 (%) 30 (0.7) 734 (0.2) 66 (0.2)
Prehospital features
 Oxygen saturation (median [IQR]) 96 [93, 98] 98 [95, 99] 96 [90, 98]
 Respiration Rate (median [IQR]) 18 [16, 20] 18 [16, 20] 16 [12, 20]
 Pulse (median [IQR]) 85 [73, 100] 89 [77, 102] 90 [74, 110]
 SBP (median [IQR]) 162 [138, 189] 138 [121, 156] 121 [96, 141]
 SBP < 90 (%) 48 (1.1) 11,487 (3.2) 5258 (18.9)
 GCS (median [IQR]) 15 [13, 15] 15 [15, 15] 6 [3, 13]
 GCS < 8 (%) 667 (14.7) 12,774 (3.5) 17,428 (62.8)
 Intubated (%) 311 (6.9) 12,316 (3.4) 3945 (14.2)
 Travel time to first hospital (median [IQR]) 52 [39, 76] 49 [35, 71] 48 [32, 76]
Outcome measures
 Transferred from other hospital (%) 1770 (39.1) 116,755 (32.3) 8708 (31.4)
 Level trauma center (%)
  1 2414 (53.3) 208,901 (57.9) 17,739 (63.9)
  2 1747 (38.6) 128,501 (35.6) 8897 (32.1)
  3 364 (8.0) 23,690 (6.6) 1117 (4.0)
 Length of stay (median [IQR]) 5 [3, 9] 4 [2, 7] 8 [2, 19]
 In-hospital mortality (%) 1018 (22.5) 11,992 (3.3) 10,759 (38.8)