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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with traumatic cardiac arrest

From: Association between emergency medical service transport time and survival in patients with traumatic cardiac arrest: a Nationwide retrospective observational study

  All (n = 5336) Sustained cardiac arrest at arrival (n = 4141) ROSC on arrival (n = 539)
Age, median years [IQR] 53 [36–70] 52 [36–69] 62 [42–73]
Sex male, n (%) 3588 (67.2%) 2780 (67.1%) 386 (71.6%)
Cause of trauma, n (%)
 Accident 2844 (53.3%) 2084 (50.3%) 361 (67.0%)
 Industrial accident 300 (5.6%) 223 (5.4%) 40 (7.4%)
 Self-injury 1661 (31.1%) 1417 (34.2%) 96 (17.8%)
 Assault 101 (1.9%) 80 (1.9%) 10 (1.9%)
 Other 430 (8.1%) 337 (8.1%) 32 (5.9%)
Blunt trauma 4961 (94.5%) a 3847 (94.2%) b 501 (94.9%) c
Penetrating trauma 286 (5.5%)a 235 (5.8%)b 27 (5.1%)c
ISS, median [IQR] 29 [22–41] 29 [22–41] 26 [19–36]
Ps using TRISS method, median [IQR] 2.0% [0.9–6.8%] 1.7% [0.8–5.0%] 15.5% [4.8–45.8%]
EMS transport time, median minutes [IQR] 11 [6–17] 11 [6–17] 13 [8–24]
 Survivor, median minutes [IQR] 11 [6–20] 8 [4–13] 13 [8–22]
 Non-survivor, median minutes [IQR] 11 [6–17] 11 [6–17] 12 [8–24]
EMS encounter time, median minutes [IQR] 29 [18–60] 29 [18–60] 33 [20–60]
Survival at discharge, n (%) 239 (4.5%) 48 (1.2%) 151 (28.0%)
  1. a evaluated in 5247 patients. b evaluated in 4082 patients. c evaluated in 528 patients. EMS Emergency medical services, IQR Interquartile range, ISS Injury Severity Score, Ps Probability of survival, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, TRISS Trauma Injury Severity Score. Missing ROSC data on arrival for 656 patients. EMS transport time was defined as the time from EMS leaving trauma scene to hospital arrival. EMS encounter time was defined as the time from patient-provider contact at the scene to hospital arrival