Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics1

From: Association between prehospital arterial hypercapnia and mortality in acute heart failure: a retrospective cohort study

  All patients
(n = 225)
No prehospital hypercapnia
(n = 93)
Prehospital
hypercapnia
(n = 132)
p-value
Age (y) – median (IQR) 86 (78–90) 86 (77–90) 86 (79–90) 0.554
Sex (f) – n (%) 143 (63.6) 51 (54.8) 92 (69.7) 0.023
Therapeutic limitation – n (%) 113 (50.2) 44 (47.3) 69 (52.3) 0.464
Week-end intervention – n (%) 70 (31.1) 34 (36.6) 36 (27.7) 0.138
Night intervention – n (%) 114 (50.67) 41 (44.1) 73 (55.3) 0.245
Length of intervention (min) – median (IQR) 39 (34–47) 42 (35–47) 38 (34–46.5) 0.187
Personal history – n (%)
Hypertension 190 (84.4) 74 (79.6) 116 (87.9) 0.090
Coronary heart disease 77 (34.2) 37 (39.8) 40 (30.3) 0.140
Atrial fibrillation 100 (44.4) 54 (40.9) 46 (49.5) 0.204
Pacemaker 41 (18.2) 19 (20.4) 22 (16.7) 0.471
Active cancer 14 (6.2) 5 (5.4) 9 (6.8) 0.659
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 30 (13.3) 12 (12.9) 18 (13.6) 0.873
Diabetes mellitus 60 (26.7) 23 (24.7) 37 (28.0) 0.582
Chronic renal failure 114 (50.7) 45 (48.4) 69 (52.3) 0.567
Prior hospitalisation for heart failure 93 (41.3) 33 (35.5) 60 (45.5) 0.135
Tobacco 26 (11.6) 10 (10.8) 16 (12.1) 0.752
Prehospital vital signs
Heart rate (1/min) – mean ± SD 108.2 ± 23.3 105.3 ± 24.1 110.2 ± 22.5 0.123
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) – mean ± SD 172.8 ± 33.1 167.7 ± 32.0 176.4 ± 33.5 0.052
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) – mean ± SD 99.2 ± 21.8 93.7 ± 18.8 103.6 ± 23.0 0.036
Respiratory rate (1/min) – mean ± SD 36.0 ± 7.6 35.2 ± 8.1 36.5 ± 7.3 0.884
Oxygen saturation (%) – median (IQR) 88 (80–93) 88 (80–91) 88 (78.5–95) 0.624
Oxygen saturation < 95% – n (%) 175 (77.8) 80 (86.0) 95 (72.0) 0.013
Oxygen saturation < 90% – n (%) 141 (62.7) 60 (64.5) 81 (61.4) 0.630
GCS = 15 – n (%) 158 (70.2) 76 (81.7) 82 (62.1) 0.002
 Prehospital PaCO2 (kPa) – median (IQR) 6.2 (5.3–7.7) 5.1 (4.7–5.6) 7.4 (6.6–8.9) < 0.001
 Prehospital pH – median (IQR) 7.31 (7.25–7.38) 7.38 (7.32–7.42) 7.26 (7.20–7.31) < 0.001
 Prehospital bicarbonate – median (IQR) 24 (21–28) 22.0 (19.7–24.1) 26.2 (22.5–30.5) < 0.001
 Prehospital NIV – n (%) 193 (85.8) 69 (74.2) 124 (93.9) < 0.001
Laboratory values
Creatinine (μmol/l) – median (IQR) 112 (81–146) 114 (84–151) 108 (80–143) 0.364
Pro-BNP (pg/ml)– median (IQR) 3583 (1834–8847) 4085 (2000–12,220) 3322 (1801–6722) 0.393
  1. 1 SD standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, NIV Non-invasive ventilation, GCS Glasgow coma scale, pro-BNP pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Therapeutic limitation was defined as “Advanced care planning preventing intensive care unit admission”