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Table 2 Baseline demographics of patients admitted to intensive care units

From: Pain management of nalbuphine and sufentanil in patients admitted intensive care unit of different ages

  Total N = 78 Sufentanil N = 38 Nalbuphine N = 40 p-valuea
Gender     0.962
Male 31 (39.7%) 15 16  
Female 47 (60.3%) 23 24  
Age (year) 53.36 ± 2.15 55.05 ± 3.32 51.75 ± 2.77 0.446
Weight (kg) 64.63 ± 1.06 63.79 ± 1.64 65.43 ± 1.37 0.444
APACHE II 10 (6, 17) 13 (8, 18) 8.5 (5, 14) 0.072
Disease entity     0.214
Infectious disease 16 (20.5%) 9 (23.7%) 7 (17.5%)  
Trauma and accidental injury 26 (33.3%) 13 (34.2%) 13 (32.5%)  
Neoplasms 10 (12.8%) 3 (7.9%) 7 (17.5%)  
Inflammatory disease 5 (6.4%) 3 (7.9%) 2 (5.0%)  
Digestive systems 7 (9.0%) 6 (15.8%) 1 (2.5%)  
Cardiovascular system 3 (3.8%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (7.5%)  
Respiratory disease 2 (2.6%) 1 (2.6%) 1 (2.5%)  
Others 9 (11.5%) 3 (7.9%) 6 (15.0%)  
CPOT 3.42 ± 0.15 3.42 ± 0.22 3.43 ± 0.21 0.990
RASS 1.54 ± 0.09 1.61 ± 0.13 1.48 ± 0.14 0.493
SBP (mmHg) 126.08 ± 2.31 128.21 ± 3.43 124.05 ± 3.12 0.371
DBP (mmHg) 73.28 ± 1.40 71.26 ± 2.07 75.20 ± 1.88 0.162
HR (bpm/min) 96.15 ± 2.53 99.71 ± 3.85 92.78 ± 3.27 0.172
SpO2 (%) 96.92 ± 0.62 97.34 ± 0.64 96.52 ± 1.05 0.510
  1. Abbreviation: APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CPOT Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, RASS Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, HR heart rate, SpO2 oxygen saturation, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure
  2. aMann-Whitney test was used for continuous variables, and Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical variables. Data were presented as mean ± standard error (SE) or median with inter-quartile range (IQR)