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Table 3 Patients admitted to intensive care units receiving sufentanil or nalbuphine at each time point

From: Pain management of nalbuphine and sufentanil in patients admitted intensive care unit of different ages

  0 h 1 h 3 h 5 h 12 h 24 h p-valuea
CPOT        
 Sufentanil 3.42 ± 1.37 2.63 ± 1.50 1.92 ± 1.44 1.29 ± 1.16 1.05 ± 1.13 0.92 ± 1.09  < 0.001
 Nalbuphine 3.43 ± 1.36 2.20 ± 1.16 1.60 ± 1.03 1.28 ± 1.04 1.05 ± 0.89 0.95 ± 0.92  < 0.001
p-valueb 0.990 0.157 0.260 0.954 0.991 0.897  
RASS        
 Sufentanil 1.61 ± 0.79 0.82 ± 0.87 0.50 ± 0.86 0.16 ± 0.79 0.00 ± 0.62 -0.03 ± 0.50  < 0.001
 Nalbuphine 1.48 ± 0.88 0.75 ± 1.10 0.38 ± 0.90 -0.18 ± 1.01 -0.21 ± 1.06 -0.41 ± 1.02  < 0.001
p-valueb 0.493 0.771 0.533 0.110 0.304 0.040  
SBP (mm/Hg)        
 Sufentanil 128.21 ± 3.43 124.97 ± 3.04 123.45 ± 3.61 123.84 ± 2.91 124.51 ± 2.76 126.42 ± 2.90 0.912
 Nalbuphine 124.05 ± 3.12 125.08 ± 2.70 121.95 ± 2.47 118.25 ± 2.37 118.13 ± 2.48 121.18 ± 2.66 0.286
p-valueb 0.371 0.980 0.731 0.139 0.089 0.186  
DBP (mm/Hg)        
 Sufentanil 71.26 ± 2.07 69.34 ± 1.53 66.87 ± 1.85 65.92 ± 2.23 69.89 ± 1.63 69.44 ± 1.73 0.418
 Nalbuphine 75.20 ± 1.88 75.45 ± 1.68 73.05 ± 1.45 71.13 ± 1.54 68.46 ± 1.44 70.67 ± 1.55 0.010
p-valueb 0.162 0.009 0.010 0.056 0.511 0.599  
HR (bpm/min)        
 Sufentanil 99.71 ± 3.85 98.26 ± 3.90 95.89 ± 3.49 94.58 ± 3.41 92.27 ± 3.08 92.25 ± 3.47 0.580
 Nalbuphine 92.78 ± 3.27 91.13 ± 3.05 88.28 ± 3.09 86.70 ± 2.91 88.31 ± 3.03 89.28 ± 2.82 0.766
p-valueb 0.172 0.151 0.105 0.082 0.362 0.507  
SpO2 (%)        
 Sufentanil 97.34 ± 0.64 97.87 ± 0.34 98.08 ± 0.31 97.79 ± 0.37 98.16 ± 0.32 98.00 ± 0.64 0.872
 Nalbuphine 96.52 ± 1.05 97.43 ± 0.67 97.51 ± 0.64 98.10 ± 0.32 98.41 ± 0.28 97.72 ± 0.42 0.296
p-valueb 0.510 0.561 0.430 0.525 0.562 0.709  
  1. Abbreviation: CPOT Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, RASS Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR, heart rate, SpO2, oxygen saturation
  2. Data were presented as mean ± standard error (SE) or median with inter-quartile range (IQR). Bold indicates a statistically significant difference with a p-value less than 0.05
  3. aThe P-value was calculated using the generalized estimating equation method
  4. bThe Student t test was used to analyze the differences between groups at indicated time points