Skip to main content


Emergency medical services

Section edited by Suzanne Mason

This section considers articles on out-of-hospital acute care, ground first responder and paramedic systems, ambulance service and other critical care transports, EMS regulations, policies and guidelines.

  1. Content type: Research article

    Overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs) is internationally recognized as one of the greatest challenges to healthcare provision. Numerous studies have highlighted the ill-effects of overcrowding, including...

    Authors: Andrea Strada, Francesca Bravi, Giorgia Valpiani, Roberto Bentivegna and Tiziano Carradori

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:47

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    Pain is the most frequent presenting complaint in patients consulting or admitted to the emergency department (ED). Thus, its acute management is often done by physicians working in the ED. These clinicians ar...

    Authors: Paul Owono Etoundi, Junette Arlette Metogo Mbengono, Ferdinand Ndom Ntock, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Dominique Christelle Anaba Ndom, Francky Teddy Endomba Angong, Gérard Beyiha and Jacqueline Ze Minkande

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:45

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Some crucial decisions in treatment of hypothermic patients are closely linked to core body temperature. They concern modification of resuscitation algorithms and choosing the target hospital. Under- as well a...

    Authors: Paweł Podsiadło, Tomasz Darocha, Sylweriusz Kosiński, Tomasz Sanak and Robert Gałązkowski

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:44

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    The prehospital care of patients with sepsis are commonly performed by the emergency medical services. These patients may be critically ill and have high in-hospital mortality rates. Unfortunately, few patient...

    Authors: Agnes Olander, Henrik Andersson, Annelie J. Sundler, Anders Bremer, Lars Ljungström and Magnus Andersson Hagiwara

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:43

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Patient satisfaction has become an increasingly important element in a service-oriented healthcare market. Although satisfaction is influenced by many factors, the waiting time to be seen by medical staff has ...

    Authors: Hervé Spechbach, Jessica Rochat, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Christian Lovis and Frederic Ehrler

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:41

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Early recognition of stroke symptoms results in a lower time period after stroke onset to treatment with a better outcome. This depends on the awareness of patients, family members, and the general public.

    Authors: Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Samad Shams Vahdati, Reza Rikhtegar, Khazar Ghasempour and Aysa Rezabakhsh

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:36

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    Community Paramedics (CPs) require access to timely blood analysis in the field to guide treatment and transport decisions. Point of care testing (POCT), as opposed to laboratory analysis, may offer a solution...

    Authors: Ian E. Blanchard, Ryan Kozicky, Dana Dalgarno, Justin Simms, Stacy Goulder, Tyler S. Williamson, Susan Biesbroek, Lenore Page, Karen Leaman, Suzanne Snozyk, Lyle Redman, Keith Spackman, Christopher J. Doig, Eddy S. Lang and Gerald Lazarenko

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:30

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    The increasing burdens of trauma and time sensitive non-communicable disease in Addis Ababa necessitate a robust emergency medical care system. The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of pat...

    Authors: Menbeu Sultan, Yonas Abebe, Assefu Welde Tsadik, Asmamaw Ababa, Alegnta Gebre Yesus and Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:28

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Prehospital emergency care has developed rapidly during the past decades. The care is given in a complex context which makes prehospital care a potential high-risk activity when it comes to patient safety. Pat...

    Authors: Magnus Andersson Hagiwara, Carl Magnusson, Johan Herlitz, Elin Seffel, Christer Axelsson, Monica Munters, Anneli Strömsöe and Lena Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:14

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    Decision-making concerning the limitation of potentially life-prolonging treatments is often challenging, particularly in the Emergency Department (ED). Current literature in this area of Emergency Medicine is...

    Authors: Nathan Walzl, Jessica Jameson, John Kinsella and David J. Lowe

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:9

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    This descriptive study compared 2014–15 to 2005–06 data on the quality of mental health services (MHS) in relation to emergency room (ER) use to assess the impact of the 2005 Quebec MH reform regarding access,...

    Authors: Marie-Josée Fleury, Marilyn Fortin, Louis Rochette, Guy Grenier, Christophe Huỳnh, Éric Pelletier and Helen-Maria Vasiliadis

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:8

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Early warning score systems have been widely recommended for use to detect clinical deterioration in patients. The Irish National Emergency Medicine Programme has developed and piloted an emergency department ...

    Authors: Marie E. Ward, Abel Wakai, Ronald McDowell, Fiona Boland, Eoin Coughlan, Moayed Hamza, John Browne, Ronan O’Sullivan, Una Geary, Fiona McDaid, Éidín Ní Shé, Frances J. Drummond, Conor Deasy and Eilish McAuliffe

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:7

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Parental social characteristics influence the use of emergency departments (ED) in the USA, but less is known about paediatric ED care-seeking in countries with national health insurance. This prospective stud...

    Authors: Julia Ellbrant, Jonas Åkeson, Jenny Eckner and Pia Karlsland Åkeson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:59

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    In the emergency department, it is important to identify and prioritize who requires an urgent intervention in a short time. Triage helps recognize the urgency among patients. An accurate triage decision helps...

    Authors: Hon Lon Tam, Siu Fung Chung and Chi Kin Lou

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:58

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    We aimed to describe diagnosed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its care management and outcomes in emergency departments (EDs) and to determine related cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs).

    Authors: Asma Sriha Belguith, Kaouthar Beltaief, Mohamed Amine Msolli, Wahid Bouida, Hela Abroug, Manel Ben Fredj, Imen Zemni, Mohamed Habib Grissa, Hamdi Boubaker, Mohamed Hsairi and Samir Nouira

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:50

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Emergency Care has previously been identified as an area of significant concern regarding the prevalence of Adverse Events (AEs). However, the majority of this focus has been on the in-hospital setting, with l...

    Authors: Ian Howard, Bernard Pillay, Nicholas Castle, Loua Al Shaikh, Robert Owen and David Williams

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:47

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Paramedics work in a highly complex and unpredictable environment which is characterized by ongoing decision-making. Decisions made by paramedics in the prehospital setting have implications for patient safety...

    Authors: Gudrun Reay, James A. Rankin, Lorraine Smith-MacDonald and Gerald C. Lazarenko

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:42

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    Every year, about 1.2 million people die through road traffic crashes worldwide. Majority of these deaths occur in Africa where most of their emergency medical services are underdeveloped. In 2004, Ghana estab...

    Authors: Mohammed-Najeeb Mahama, Ernest Kenu, Delia Akosua Bandoh and Ahmed Nuhu Zakariah

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:33

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular morbidity have been previously reported showing direct associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and worse health outcomes. However, disagreement remains rega...

    Authors: George Mnatzaganian, Janet E Hiller, Jason Fletcher, Mark Putland, Cameron Knott, George Braitberg, Steve Begg and Melanie Bish

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:32

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Physician-staffed helicopter emergency services (HEMS) can provide benefit through the delivery of specialist competence and equipment to the prehospital scene and through expedient transport of critically ill...

    Authors: Daniel Kornhall, Robert Näslund, Cecilia Klingberg, Regina Schiborr and Mikael Gellerfors

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:28

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    The association between burnout and patient safety has been analyzed in many studies for nurses, physicians, and residents. However, studies concerning prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) workers are ...

    Authors: Natalie Baier, Karsten Roth, Susanne Felgner and Cornelia Henschke

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:24

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    Poor communication during patient handover is recognised internationally as a root cause of a significant proportion of preventable deaths. Data used in handover is not always easily recorded using ambulance b...

    Authors: David Fitzpatrick, Douglas Maxwell and Alan Craigie

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:16

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are popular rescue systems despite inconsistent evidence in the scientific literature to support their use for primary interventions, as well as for inter-facility ...

    Authors: Damien Di Rocco, Mathieu Pasquier, Eric Albrecht, Pierre-Nicolas Carron and Fabrice Dami

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:13

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    In Mozambique, and other low-income countries (LICs), there is little information on the burden of child maltreatment (CM). Emergency care services (ECS) play an important role in recognizing, treating, and in...

    Authors: Liliana Pinto, Adriana Lein, Raquel Mahoque, David W. Wright, Scott M. Sasser and Catherine A. Staton

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:11

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Africa accounts for one sixth of global road traffic deaths—most in the pre-hospital setting. Ambulance transport is expensive relative to other modes of pre-hospital transport, but has advantages in time-sens...

    Authors: Yonas Abebe, Tolesa Dida, Engida Yisma and David M. Silvestri

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2018 18:7

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    The optimal prehospital fluid for the treatment of hypotension is unknown. Hypertonic fluids may increase circulatory volume and mute the pro-inflammatory response of the body to injury and illness. The purpos...

    Authors: I. E. Blanchard, A. Ahmad, K. L. Tang, P. E. Ronksley, D. Lorenzetti, G. Lazarenko, E. S. Lang, C. J. Doig and H. T. Stelfox

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:35

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    The demand for critical care beds is increasing out of proportion to bed availability. As a result, some critically ill patients are kept in the Emergency Department (ED boarding) awaiting bed availability. Th...

    Authors: Saad Al-Qahtani, Abdullah Alsultan, Samir Haddad, Abdulmohsen Alsaawi, Moeed Alshehri, Sami Alsolamy, Afef Felebaman, Hani M. Tamim, Nawfal Aljerian, Abdulaziz Al-Dawood and Yaseen Arabi

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:34

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    New South Wales (NSW), Australia has a network of multirole retrieval physician staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) with seven bases servicing a jurisdiction with population concentrated along...

    Authors: Alan A. Garner and Pieter L. van den Berg

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:31

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabiliti...

    Authors: Joseph Kimuli Balikuddembe, Ali Ardalan, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Amir Nejati and Owais Raza

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:29

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel who work to provide emergency medical care at the scene and during transportation are exposed to various kinds of stressors and are particularly susceptible to develop...

    Authors: Salima Mansoor Kerai, Uzma Rahim Khan, Muhammad Islam, Nargis Asad, Junaid Razzak and Omrana Pasha

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:26

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Debate

    Medical care is obviously an important public service to ensure the health of a nation; however, medical resources are not always used appropriately. ‘Convenience-store consultations’ and inappropriate ambulan...

    Authors: Yasuhiro Kadooka, Atsushi Asai, Aya Enzo and Taketoshi Okita

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:23

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    The effective treatment of airway compromise in trauma and non-trauma patients is important. Hypoxia and hypotension are predictors of negative patient outcomes and increased mortality, and may be important qu...

    Authors: Geir Arne Sunde, Mårten Sandberg, Richard Lyon, Knut Fredriksen, Brian Burns, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Jo Røislien, Akos Soti, Helena Jäntti, David Lockey, Jon-Kenneth Heltne and Stephen J. M. Sollid

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:22

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    Satisfaction refers to a state of pleasure or contentment with an action, event or service, especially one that was previously desired. Regarding to client, satisfaction is the level of happiness that clients ...

    Authors: Mesfin Worku and Eskindir Loha

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:21

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Frequencies of reasons for encounter (RFEs) in emergency primary care out-of-hours (OOH) services are relevant for planning of capacities as well as to target the training of staff at casualty clinics. We aime...

    Authors: Guttorm Raknes and Steinar Hunskaar

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:19

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Paramedic-performed out-of-hospital ultrasound is a novel skill that has gained popularity in some services in recent years. In this setting point-of care ultrasound (POCUS) can provide additional information ...

    Authors: Ben Meadley, Alexander Olaussen, Ashleigh Delorenzo, Nick Roder, Caroline Martin, Toby St. Clair, Andrew Burns, Emma Stam and Brett Williams

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:18

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Seniors living in subsidized housing have lower income, poorer health, and increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases and falls. Seniors also account for more than one third of calls to Emergency Medical Serv...

    Authors: G. Agarwal, R. Angeles, M. Pirrie, F. Marzanek, B. McLeod, J. Parascandalo and L. Dolovich

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:8

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Ambulance paramedics play a critical role expediting patient access to emergency treatments. Standardised handover communication frameworks have led to improvements in accuracy and speed of information transfe...

    Authors: Darren Flynn, Richard Francis, Shannon Robalino, Joanne Lally, Helen Snooks, Helen Rodgers, Graham McClelland, Gary A. Ford and Christopher Price

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:5

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    The Kampala Metropolitan Area (KMA) is the fastest developing region in Uganda. Over recent years, this has placed exponential demand on the road sector, which consequently has contributed to rapid growth in m...

    Authors: Joseph Kimuli Balikuddembe, Ali Ardalan, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Amir Nejati and Stephen Kasiima

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:1

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2017 17:4

  39. Content type: Research article

    Disposition decisions are critical to the functioning of Emergency Departments. The objectives of the present study were to derive and internally validate a prediction model for inpatient admission from the Em...

    Authors: Michael M. Dinh, Saartje Berendsen Russell, Kendall J. Bein, Kris Rogers, David Muscatello, Richard Paoloni, Jon Hayman, Dane R. Chalkley and Rebecca Ivers

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2016 16:46

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    The Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC) operators in Norway report using the Norwegian Index for Medical Emergency Assistance (Index), a criteria-based dispatch guideline, in about 75 % of medical em...

    Authors: Eirin N. Ellensen, Torben Wisborg, Steinar Hunskaar and Erik Zakariassen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2016 16:40

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Elder abuse and neglect are highly under-reported in the United States. This may be partially attributed to low incidence of reporting among emergency medical technicians’ (EMTs), despite state-mandated report...

    Authors: Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, M. Brad Cannell, Katelyn K. Jetelina and Sepeadeh Radpour

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2016 16:36

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Trauma-related mortality can be lowered by efficient prehospital care. Less is known about whether gender influences the prehospital trauma care provided. The aim of this study was to explore gender-related di...

    Authors: Rebecka Rubenson Wahlin, Sari Ponzer, Hanna Lövbrand, Markus Skrivfars, Hans Morten Lossius and Maaret Castrén

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2016 16:6

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    In November 2013, the Irish Regulator for emergency medical technicians (EMTs) introduced the first mandatory requirement for registrants to demonstrate evidence of continuous professional development (CPD)/co...

    Authors: Shane Knox, Suzanne Dunne, Walter Cullen and Colum P Dunne

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2015 15:11

    Published on:

2018 Journal Metrics