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Emergency medical services

This section considers articles on out-of-hospital acute care, ground first responder and paramedic systems, ambulance service and other critical care transports, EMS regulations, policies and guidelines.

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  1. Medical dispatchers have limited information to assess the appropriate emergency response when citizens call the emergency number. We explored whether live video from bystanders’ smartphones changed emergency ...

    Authors: Gitte Linderoth, Freddy Lippert, Doris Østergaard, Annette K. Ersbøll, Christian S. Meyhoff, Fredrik Folke and Helle C. Christensen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. As the first link in the chain of providing healthcare services in the frontline of the battle against COVID-19, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are faced with various challenges, which affect their...

    Authors: Fateme Mohammadi, Banafsheh Tehranineshat, Mostafa Bijani and Ali Asghar Khaleghi

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Adverse attitudes and insufficient knowledge about organ donation after Circulatory Determined Death (DCD) among emergency staff can have important consequences for the proper identification of potential DCD d...

    Authors: Jafar Kondori, Rouzbeh Rajaei Ghafouri, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh Attari, Stephen R. Large and Zahra Sheikhalipour

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Some emergency departments use triage scales, such as the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale and Japan Urgent Stroke Triage Score, to detect life-threatening situations. However, these protocols have not been us...

    Authors: Noriaki Yamada, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Takahiro Yoshida, Sho Nachi, Hideshi Okada and Shinji Ogura

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. Telephone triage within out-of-hours (OOH) services aims to ascertain the urgency of a caller’s medical condition in order to determine the correct type of health care needed, ensuring patient safety. To impro...

    Authors: Sita LeBlanc Thilsted, Fredrik Folke, Janne S. Tolstrup, Lau Caspar Thygesen and Hejdi Gamst-Jensen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. The COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health problem. Subsequently, emergency medical services (EMS) have anecdotally experienced fluctuations in demand, with reports across Canada of both increased and decr...

    Authors: Richard Ferron, Gina Agarwal, Rhiannon Cooper and Douglas Munkley

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Dizziness is a relatively common symptom among patients who call for the emergency medical services (EMS).

    Authors: C. Magnusson, J. Gärskog, E. Lökholm, J. Stenström, R. Wetter, C. Axelsson, M. Andersson Hagiwara, N. Packendorff, K. Jood, T. Karlsson and J. Herlitz

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. The number of operations by the German emergency medical service almost doubled between 1994 and 2016. The associated expenses increased by 380% in a similar period. Operations with treatment on-site, which re...

    Authors: Marc S. Schehadat, Guido Scherer, David A. Groneberg, Manfred Kaps and Michael H. K. Bendels

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:29

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. A lack of follow-up of violence incidents and assaulted staff has been associated with high levels of workplace violence. There is a paucity of literature on the barriers, enablers and opportunities for organi...

    Authors: Brodie Thomas, Anthony McGillion, Kristina Edvardsson, Peter O’Meara, Julia Van Vuuren and Evelien Spelten

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a common condition that often presents with acute respiratory distress and requires urgent medical evaluation and treatment. Arterial hypercapnia is common in AHF and has been asso...

    Authors: Mathias Fabre, Christophe A. Fehlmann, Birgit Gartner, Catherine G. Zimmermann-Ivoll, Florian Rey, François Sarasin and Laurent Suppan

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Standard prehospital management for Acute respiratory failure (ARF) involves controlled oxygen therapy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a potentially beneficial alternative treatment, however, it...

    Authors: Praveen Thokala, Gordon W. Fuller, Steve Goodacre, Samuel Keating, Esther Herbert, Gavin D. Perkins, Andy Rosser, Imogen Gunson, Joshua Miller, Matthew Ward, Mike Bradburn, Tim Harris, Maggie Marsh, Kate Ren and Cindy Cooper

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:13

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Having to work in unpredictable and critical conditions, emergency care services (EMS) personnel experience complicated situations at the scene of accidents which, inevitably, influence their clinical decision...

    Authors: Mostafa Bijani, Saeed Abedi, Shahnaz Karimi and Banafsheh Tehranineshat

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  13. There were 25.6 million attendances at Emergency Departments (EDs) in England in 2019 corresponding to an increase of 12 million attendances over the past ten years. The steadily rising demand at EDs creates a...

    Authors: Michaela A.C. Vollmer, Ben Glampson, Thomas Mellan, Swapnil Mishra, Luca Mercuri, Ceire Costello, Robert Klaber, Graham Cooke, Seth Flaxman and Samir Bhatt

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:9

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The South African Triage Scale (SATS) is a validated in-hospital triage tool that has been innovatively adopted for use in the prehospital setting by Western Cape Government (WCG) Emergency Medical Services (E...

    Authors: Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman, Julia M. Dixon, Taylor Burkholder, Jennifer L. Pigoga, Michael Lee, Shaheem de Vries, Kubendhren Moodley, Maxene Meier, Kathryn Colborn, Chandni Patel and Lee A. Wallis

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Optimization of preoxygenation procedure can help to secure the method of intubation by reducing the risks of severe hypoxemia and other problems. There is confusion for efficacy of non-invasive ventilation co...

    Authors: Chao Zhang and Min Ou

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:46

  16. The prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is very poor. While several prehospital factors are known to be associated with improved survival, the impact of prehospital factors on different age grou...

    Authors: Jyun-Bin Huang, Kuo-Hsin Lee, Yu-Ni Ho, Ming-Ta Tsai, Wei-Ting Wu and Fu-Jen Cheng

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Emergency departments (EDs) worldwide have been in the epicentre of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the impact of the pandemic and national emergency measures on the number of non-COVID-19 p...

    Authors: Jalmari Tuominen, Ville Hällberg, Niku Oksala, Ari Palomäki, Timo Lukkarinen and Antti Roine

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:97

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Since the vast majority of older adults in Sweden live in their private homes throughout life, the emergency medical services need to adapt accordingly. Hence, we aimed to describe characteristic patterns of d...

    Authors: Anna Hjalmarsson, Mats Holmberg, Margareta Asp, Gunnel Östlund, Kent W. Nilsson and Birgitta Kerstis

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:94

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Sudden loss of consciousness (LOC) in the prehospital setting in the absence of cardiac arrest and seizure activity may be a challenge from a dispatcher’s perspective: The aetiology is varied, with many causes...

    Authors: J. Mohindru, J. E. Griggs, R. de Coverly, R. M. Lyon and E. ter Avest

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:92

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Dyspnoea is one of the most common reasons for patients contacting emergency medical services (EMS). Pre-hospital Emergency Nurses (PENs) are independently responsible for advanced care and to meet these patie...

    Authors: Wivica Kauppi, Johan Herlitz, Thomas Karlsson, Carl Magnusson, Lina Palmér and Christer Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:89

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Organizational changes in out-of-hour (OOH) services may have unintended consequences for other prehospital services. Reports indicate an increased use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) after cha...

    Authors: Dag Ståle Nystøyl, Jo Røislien, Øyvind Østerås, Steinar Hunskaar, Hans Johan Breidablik and Erik Zakariassen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  22. A decision system in the ambulance allowing alternative pathways to alternate healthcare providers has been developed for older patients in Stockholm, Sweden. However, subsequent healthcare resource use result...

    Authors: Sofi Varg, Veronica Vicente, Maaret Castren, Peter Lindgren and Clas Rehnberg

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Obstetric triage is a new idea, so the design and implementation of it requires identification of its concept and structure. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept and structure of the ob...

    Authors: Asieh Moudi, Mina Iravani, Mahin Najafian, Armin Zareiyan, Arash Forouzan and Mojgan Mirghafourvand

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Clinical decision-making (CDM) is an important competency for young doctors especially under complex and uncertain conditions in geriatric emergency medicine (GEM). However, research in this field is character...

    Authors: Maria Louise Gamborg, Mimi Mehlsen, Charlotte Paltved, Gitte Tramm and Peter Musaeus

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Amidst the ongoing opioid crisis there are debates regarding the optimal route of administration and dosages of naloxone. This applies both for lay people administration and emergency medical services, and in ...

    Authors: Ida Tylleskar, Linn Gjersing, Lars Petter Bjørnsen, Anne-Cathrine Braarud, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Ola Dale and Arne Kristian Skulberg

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Vestibular symptoms are a frequent reason for presenting at the emergency department (ED). Underlying conditions range in severity from life-threatening to benign, but often remain undiagnosed despite extensiv...

    Authors: Martin Müller, Martina B. Goeldlin, Janika Gaschen, Thomas C. Sauter, Stephanie Stock, Franca Wagner, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Urs Fischer, Roger Kalla and Georgios Mantokoudis

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:70

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Worldwide, policies exist on family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), however, this is still lacking in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) in general and in the Kingdom of Bahrain in particular. The aim ...

    Authors: Feras H. Abuzeyad, Ahmed Elhobi, Wael Kamkoum, Luma Bashmi, Ghada Al-Qasim, Leena Alqasem, Naser Mohamed Ali Mansoor, Stephanie Hsu and Priya Das

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Dyspnoea (breathing difficulty) is among the most commonly cited reasons for contacting emergency medical services (EMSs). Dyspnoea is caused by several serious underlying medical conditions and, based on pati...

    Authors: Wivica Kauppi, Johan Herlitz, Carl Magnusson, Lina Palmér and Christer Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  29. To manage increasing demand for emergency and unscheduled care NHS England policy has promoted services in which patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) with non-urgent problems are directed to gene...

    Authors: Michelle Edwards, Alison Cooper, Freya Davies, Rebecca Sherlock, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Delyth Price, Alison Porter, Bridie Evans, Saiful Islam, Helen Snooks, Pippa Anderson, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, Peter Hibbert, Thomas Hughes, Matthew Cooke, Jeremy Dale…

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. There has been an increasing demand for emergency medical services (EMS), and a growing number of patients are not conveyed; i.e., they are referred to levels of care other than ambulance conveyance to the eme...

    Authors: Erik Höglund, Magnus Andersson-Hagiwara, Agneta Schröder, Margareta Möller and Emma Ohlsson-Nevo

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  31. UK Ambulance services are under pressure to safely stream appropriate patients away from the Emergency Department (ED). Even so, there has been little evaluation of patient outcomes. We investigated difference...

    Authors: Joanna M. Blodgett, Duncan J. Robertson, David Ratcliffe and Kenneth Rockwood

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:48

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The average age of the global population is rising at an increasing rate. There is a disproportional increase in Emergency Department (ED) visits by older people worldwide. In the Brazilian health system, comp...

    Authors: João Carlos Pereira Gomes, Roger Daglius Dias, Jacson Venancio de Barros, Irineu Tadeu Velasco and Wilson Jacob Filho

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Previous studies have shown that prehospital insertion of peripheral vascular access is highly variable. The aim of this study is to establish the proportion of peripheral vascular access placement and its use...

    Authors: Erin Gonvers, Thierry Spichiger, Eric Albrecht and Fabrice Dami

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Several scores and codes are used in prehospital clinical quality registries but little is known of their reliability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the American Society o...

    Authors: A. Heino, P. Laukkanen-Nevala, L. Raatiniemi, M. Tommila, J. Nurmi, A. Olkinuora, I. Virkkunen and T. Iirola

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Acute pain is frequently encountered in the prehospital setting, and therefore, a fundamental aspect of quality emergency care. Research has shown a positive association between healthcare providers’ knowledge...

    Authors: Andrit Lourens, Peter Hodkinson and Romy Parker

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Pre-hospital identification of key subgroups within the suspected stroke population could reduce delays to emergency treatment. We aimed to identify and describe technology with existing proof of concept for d...

    Authors: Hannah A Lumley, Darren Flynn, Lisa Shaw, Graham McClelland, Gary A Ford, Phil M White and Christopher I Price

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:30

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Videolaryngoscopy (VL) has become a popular method of intubation (ETI). Although VL may facilitate ETI in less-experienced rescuers there are limited data available concerning ETI performed by paramedics durin...

    Authors: Joachim Risse, Christian Volberg, Thomas Kratz, Birgit Plöger, Andreas Jerrentrup, Dirk Pabst and Clemens Kill

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:22

    Content type: Research article

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  38. This article is a report of designing a rapid and effective guide for paramedics who take care of patients in a pre-hospital setting to answer developing demands.

    Authors: Fatemeh Shirzad, Fatemeh Hadi, Seyede Salehe Mortazavi, Maryam Biglari, Hassan Noori Sari, Zeinab Mohammadi, Mehrdad Kazemzade Atoofi and Seyed Vahid Shariat

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Crowding in the emergency department (ED) is a safety concern, and pathways to bypass the ED have been introduced to reduce the time to definitive care. Conversely, a number of low-acuity patients in the ED co...

    Authors: Carl Magnusson, Johan Herlitz and Christer Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:7

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Paramedics are increasingly required to make complex decisions as to whether they should convey a patient to hospital or manage their condition at the scene. Dementia can be a significant barrier to the assess...

    Authors: Sarah Voss, Janet Brandling, Katherine Pollard, Hazel Taylor, Sarah Black, Marina Buswell, Richard Cheston, Sarah Cullum, Theresa Foster, Kim Kirby, Larissa Prothero, Sarah Purdy, Chris Solway and Jonathan Benger

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:6

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is used to secure the airway of stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial evidence exists to support the use of paramedic RSI for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but cannot nec...

    Authors: Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Malcolm Boyle, Stephen Bernard and Karen Smith

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:5

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Within each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified key emergency care (EC) interventions that, if implemented effectively, could ensure that the SDG tar...

    Authors: Martina Anto-Ocrah, Jeremy Cushman, Mechelle Sanders and Timothy De Ver Dye

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:3

    Content type: Debate

    Published on:

  43. Dispatch services (DS’s) form an integral part of emergency medical service (EMS) systems. The role of a dispatcher has also evolved into a crucial link in patient care delivery, particularly in dispatcher ass...

    Authors: Shawn Chieh Loong Lee, Desmond Renhao Mao, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Jirapong Supasaovapak, Faith Joan Gaerlan, Do Ngoc Son, Boon Yang Chia, Sang Do Shin, Chih-Hao Lin, G. V. Ramana Rao, Takahiro Hara and Marcus Eng Hock Ong

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Previous systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for frequent presenters to the Emergency Department (ED) but not the costs and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

    Authors: Viola Korczak, Janani Shanthosh, Stephen Jan, Michael Dinh and Thomas Lung

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:83

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Emergency ambulance services are integral to providing a service for those with unplanned urgent and life-threatening health conditions. However, high use of the service by a small minority of patients is a co...

    Authors: Helen A. Snooks, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Robert Cole, Adrian Edwards, Bethan Mair Edwards, Bridie A. Evans, Theresa Foster, Rachael T. Fothergill, Carol P. Gripper, Chelsey Hampton, Ann John, Robin Petterson, Alison Porter, Andy Rosser and Jason Scott

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:82

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Nigeria is ranked second highest in the rate of road accidents and other emergencies (Deaths, disabilities) among 193 countries of the world. There is therefore the need for analyzing Emergency Medical Rescue ...

    Authors: Peter Asaga Mac, Axel Kroeger and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

Annual Journal Metrics

  • Speed
    53 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only
    43 days to first decision for all manuscripts
    132 days from submission to acceptance
    15 days from acceptance to publication

    Citation Impact
    2.119 - 2-year Impact Factor
    2.540 - 5-year Impact Factor
    1.094 - SNIP (Source-Normalized Impact per Paper)
    0.765 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

    Usage 
    403,325 Downloads
    562 Altmetric Mentions