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  1. The time from injury to treatment is considered as one of the major determinants for patient outcome after trauma. Previous studies already attempted to investigate the correlation between prehospital time and...

    Authors: E. Berkeveld, Z. Popal, P. Schober, W. P. Zuidema, F. W. Bloemers and G. F. Giannakopoulos
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:78
  2. Traumatic arrests increasingly affect young adults worldwide with low reported survival rates. This study examines factors associated with survival (to hospital discharge) in traumatic arrests transported to U...

    Authors: Abdel-Badih Ariss, Rana Bachir and Mazen El Sayed
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:77
  3. Ultrasonography (US) is recently used frequently as a tool for airway assessment prior to intubation (endotracheal tube (ETT) placement), and several indicators have been proposed in studies with different rep...

    Authors: Mehran Sotoodehnia, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Hadi Mirfazaelian, Arash Safaie and Alireza Baratloo
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:76
  4. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and topography of intra-pelvic arterial lesions associated with high-energy blunt pelvic ring injuries (PRI).

    Authors: Anna-Eliane Abboud, Sana Boudabbous, Elisabeth Andereggen, Michaël de Foy, Alexandre Ansorge and Axel Gamulin
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:75
  5. In March 2020 we faced a huge spread of the epidemic of SARS-CoV2 in northern Italy; the Emergency Departments (ED) and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were overwhelmed by patients requiring care. The hos...

    Authors: A. Jachetti, G. Colombo, B. Brignolo-Ottolini, J. Franchi, M. Solbiati, M. Pecorino Meli, P. Bosco and G. Costantino
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:74
  6. Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. School-age children are more likely to experience unintentional injuries in the school, while they a...

    Authors: Belayneh Shetie Workneh, Enyew Getaneh Mekonen and Mohammed Seid Ali
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:73
  7. The Emergency Room (ER) is one of the most used areas in healthcare institutions. Problems with over utilisation and overcrowding have been reported worldwide. This study aims at examining the characteristics ...

    Authors: Mohammad H. Al-Qahtani, Abdullah A. Yousef, Bassam H. Awary, Waleed H. Albuali, Mohammed A. Al Ghamdi, Reem S. AlOmar, Nouf A. AlShamlan, Haneen A. Yousef, Sameerah Motabgani, Naheel A. AlAmer, Kawthar M. Alsawad, Fatimah Y. Altaweel, Kawther S. Altaweel, Roaya A. AlQunais, Fatima A. Alsubaie and Malak A. Al Shammari
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:72

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:99

  8. In-hospital mortality and short-term mortality are indicators that are commonly used to evaluate the outcome of emergency department (ED) treatment. Although several scoring systems and machine learning-based ...

    Authors: Jinwoo Jeong, Sung Woo Lee, Won Young Kim, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim and Hyungoo Kang
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:71
  9. Sepsis can be detected in an early stage in the emergency department (ED) by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. A combination of multiple biomarkers or biomarker with clinical scoring system might result...

    Authors: Kirby Tong-Minh, Iris Welten, Henrik Endeman, Tjebbe Hagenaars, Christian Ramakers, Diederik Gommers, Eric van Gorp and Yuri van der Does
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:70
  10. According to the literature, the validity and reliability of medical documentation concerning episodes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is suboptimal. However, little is known about documentation quality...

    Authors: Michael S. Dittmar, Sabrina Zimmermann, Marcus Creutzenberg, Sylvia Bele, Diane Bitzinger, Dirk Lunz, Bernhard M. Graf and Martin Kieninger
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:69
  11. Medical scoring systems are potentially useful to make optimal use of available resources. A variety of models have been developed for illness measurement and stratification of patients in Emergency Department...

    Authors: Zahra Rahmatinejad, Fariba Tohidinezhad, Fatemeh Rahmatinejad, Saeid Eslami, Ali Pourmand, Ameen Abu-Hanna and Hamidreza Reihani
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:68
  12. Coronavirus disease highly contagious, is prevalent in all age and sex groups infecting the respiratory system. The present study seeks to investigate the epidemiology and effective factors in mortality of pat...

    Authors: Davoud Adham, Shahram Habibzadeh, Hassan Ghobadi, Shabnam Asghari Jajin, Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo and Eslam Moradi-Asl
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:67
  13. Uncomplicated hyperglycaemia is a common presentation in the emergency department (ED). Rapid glucose control is associated with the risk of iatrogenic hypoglycaemia. We sought to determine the safety of a rap...

    Authors: I. Ibrahim, R. Macatangay, C. Y. Chai, C. M. Khoo and M. Mahadevan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:66
  14. Trends in the characteristics and disease severity of patients using an after-hours house call (AHHC) medical service changed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been no rep...

    Authors: Ryota Inokuchi, Kojiro Morita, Masao Iwagami, Taeko Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishikawa and Nanako Tamiya
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:64
  15. Population ageing and increased prevalence of chronic diseases result in the emergence of new demands in prehospital care. The prehospital system is facing an increase of cases without acute threat to life (so...

    Authors: Séverine Vuilleumier, Assunta Fiorentino, Sandrine Dénéréaz and Thierry Spichiger
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:63
  16. Chest pain is one of the commonest presenting complaints in urgent/emergency care, with a lifelong prevalence of up to 25% in the adult population. Pleuritic chest pain is a subset of high investigation burden...

    Authors: Gabor Xantus, Derek Burke and Peter Kanizsai
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:62
  17. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in the number of patients presenting with acute appendicitis was observed. It is unclear whether this caused a shift towards more complicated cases of acute appendiciti...

    Authors: Jochem C. G. Scheijmans, Alexander B. J. Borgstein, Carl A. J. Puylaert, Wouter J. Bom, Said Bachiri, Eduard A. van Bodegraven, Amarins T. A. Brandsma, Floor M. ter Brugge, Steve M. M. de Castro, Roy Couvreur, Lotte C. Franken, Marcia P. Gaspersz, Michelle R. de Graaff, Hannah Groenen, Suzanne C. Kleipool, Toon J. L. Kuypers…
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:61
  18. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of hospitalized trauma patients and has an adverse impact on patient outcomes. However, there is still a lack of appropriate tools for effectively predicti...

    Authors: Lingxiao He, Lei Luo, Xiaoling Hou, Dengbin Liao, Ran Liu, Chaowei Ouyang and Guanglin Wang
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:60
  19. During the recent outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), Lombardy was the most affected region in Italy, with 87,000 patients and 15,876 deaths up to May 26, 2020. Since February 22, 2020, well befor...

    Authors: Laura Castoldi, Monica Solbiati, Giorgio Costantino and Elena Casiraghi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:59
  20. Highly empiric use of carbapenem in pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is widespread problem. However, few studies have examined the association between blood culture and carbapenem use in patients with PLA in China...

    Authors: Shuangjun He, Jie Yu, Hairong Wang, Lifeng Wang, Yi Chen and Wei Zhou
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:58
  21. For adequate ventilation during bag-valve-mask ventilation, rescuers should ensure a proper mask seal using the one-handed or two-handed technique. Little is known about the magnitude of sealing forces of a ba...

    Authors: Dongchoon Uhm and Ajung Kim
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:57
  22. Emergency department (ED) visits due to non-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) conditions have drastically decreased since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to identify the magnitude, ch...

    Authors: Maaike Nab, Robyn van Vehmendahl, Inne Somers, Yvonne Schoon and Gijs Hesselink
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:56
  23. The response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom included large scale changes to healthcare delivery, without fully understanding the potential for unexpected effects caused by these changes.

    Authors: Jeremy W. Tankel, David Ratcliffe, Martin Smith, Andrew Mullarkey, Jennifer Pover, Zoe Marsden, Paula Bennett and Darren Green
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:55
  24. In-flight medical emergencies (IMEs) are common, and for a traveling physician, it is very likely to encounter such a condition. Data discussing this issue are limited. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the w...

    Authors: Nouf A. AlShamlan, Reem S. AlOmar, Majd Mohammed Alrayes, Saud K. Alkhaldi, Ali Hamad Alomar, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Fares Mohammad Nassef, Sarah Hussain Al-Matar and Hatem A. Alqahtani
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:54
  25. Telephone triage within out-of-hours (OOH) services aims to ascertain the urgency of a caller’s medical condition in order to determine the correct type of health care needed, ensuring patient safety. To impro...

    Authors: Sita LeBlanc Thilsted, Fredrik Folke, Janne S. Tolstrup, Lau Caspar Thygesen and Hejdi Gamst-Jensen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:53
  26. Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) abnormal degradation were widely found in critical illness. However, data of EG degradation in multiple traumas is limited. We performed a study to assess the EG degradation and the...

    Authors: Feng Qi, Hao Zhou, Peng Gu, Zhi-He Tang, Bao-Feng Zhu, Jian-Rong Chen, Jin-Song Zhang and Feng Li
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:52
  27. Airway management in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is important and several methods are used. The establishment of a supraglottic airway device (SAD) is a common technique used during OHC...

    Authors: Maja Pålsdatter Lønvik, Odd Eirik Elden, Mats Joakimsen Lunde, Trond Nordseth, Karin Elvenes Bakkelund and Oddvar Uleberg
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:51
  28. For decades, Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) contribute greatly to prehospital patient care by performing advanced medical interventions on-scene. Unnecessary dispatches, resulting in cancellation...

    Authors: E. Berkeveld, T. C. N. Sierkstra, P. Schober, L. A. Schwarte, M. Terra, M. A. de Leeuw, F. W. Bloemers and G. F. Giannakopoulos
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:50
  29. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jens Wretborn, Håkan Starkenberg, Thoralph Ruge, Daniel B. Wilhelms and Ulf Ekelund
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:49

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:21

  30. Emergency departments (EDs) across Canada are increasingly prescribing buprenorphine for opioid use disorder (OUD). The objective of this study was to identify the current knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours ...

    Authors: David Wiercigroch, Patricia Hoyeck, Hasan Sheikh and Jennifer Hulme
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:48
  31. Suicide is a painful consequence of many psychiatric disorders and one of the most frequent psychiatric emergencies. Generally, pre-hospital technician is the first person in the treatment chain who attends th...

    Authors: Fatemeh Shirzad, Shakiba Gholamzad, Maisam Shafiee and Seyed Vahid Shariat
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:47
  32. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chao Zhang and Min Ou
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:46

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:6

  33. The initial care of patients with sepsis is commonly performed by ambulance clinicians (ACs). Early identification, care and treatment are vital for patients with sepsis to avoid adverse outcomes. However, kno...

    Authors: Agnes Olander, Anders Bremer, Annelie J. Sundler, Magnus Andersson Hagiwara and Henrik Andersson
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:45
  34. When in need of emergency care and ambulance services, the ambulance nurse is often the first point of contact for the patient with healthcare. This role requires comprehensive knowledge of the ambulance nurse...

    Authors: Veronica Vicente, Anders Johansson, Magnus Selling, Johnny Johansson, Sebastian Möller and Lizbet Todorova
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:44
  35. The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated lockdowns have caused significant disruptions across society, including changes in the number of emergency department (ED) visits. This study aims to investigate the im...

    Authors: J. Panovska-Griffiths, J. Ross, S. Elkhodair, C. Baxter-Derrington, C. Laing and R. Raine
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:43
  36. Recent studies have shown a decrease of admissions to accident and emergency (A&E) departments after the local outbreaks of COVID-19. However, differential trends of admission counts, for example according to ...

    Authors: Philipp Jaehn, Christine Holmberg, Greta Uhlenbrock, Andreas Pohl, Thomas Finkenzeller, Michael T. Pawlik, Ivo Quack, Antonio Ernstberger, Felix Rockmann and Andreas G. Schreyer
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:42
  37. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains the leading cause of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity worldwide. While the management quality measures and clinical outcomes of patients with ACS have been e...

    Authors: Korinan Fanta, Fekede Bekele Daba, Elsah Tegene, Tsegaye Melaku, Ginenus Fekadu and Legese Chelkeba
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:41
  38. The COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health problem. Subsequently, emergency medical services (EMS) have anecdotally experienced fluctuations in demand, with reports across Canada of both increased and decr...

    Authors: Richard Ferron, Gina Agarwal, Rhiannon Cooper and Douglas Munkley
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:39
  39. Dizziness is a relatively common symptom among patients who call for the emergency medical services (EMS).

    Authors: C. Magnusson, J. Gärskog, E. Lökholm, J. Stenström, R. Wetter, C. Axelsson, M. Andersson Hagiwara, N. Packendorff, K. Jood, T. Karlsson and J. Herlitz
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:38
  40. It is recommended that difficult airway predictors be evaluated before emergency airway management. However, little is known about how patients with difficult airway predictors are managed in emergency departm...

    Authors: Jutamas Saoraya, Komsanti Vongkulbhisal, Norawit Kijpaisalratana, Suthaporn Lumlertgul, Khrongwong Musikatavorn and Atthasit Komindr
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:37
  41. While COVID-19 has had far-reaching consequences on society and health care providers, there is a paucity of research exploring frontline emergency medicine (EM) provider wellness over the course of a pandemic...

    Authors: Heather Kelker, Kyle Yoder, Paul Musey Jr, Madison Harris, Olivia Johnson, Elisa Sarmiento, Punit Vyas, Brooke Henderson, Zachary Adams and Julie Welch
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:36
  42. Emergency medical services (EMS) providers are at continuous exposure to occupational stressors which negatively affect their health and professional practice. This study explored perceived occupational stress...

    Authors: Ali Afshari, Seyed Reza Borzou, Farshid Shamsaei, Eesa Mohammadi and Leili Tapak
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:35
  43. This study analyzed the characteristics of hydrogen fluoride-exposed patients (HFEPs) treated in the emergency department (ED) of a local university hospital, and reviewed the hospital’s disaster response acco...

    Authors: Heejun Shin, Se Kwang Oh, Han You Lee, Heajin Chung, Seong Yong Yoon, Sung Yong Choi and Jae Hyuk Kim
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:34
  44. Adult emergency department mortality remains high in resource-limited lower-income countries. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 h of presentation to the emergency department. Many of these morta...

    Authors: Hanna Daniel Yosha, Achamyelesh Tadele, Sisay Teklu and Kidest Getu Melese
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:33
  45. On October 17, 2018, the Cannabis Act decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis in Canada. This study seeks to determine how legalization of cannabis has impacted emergency department (ED) visits for acu...

    Authors: Robert Baraniecki, Puru Panchal, Danya Deepsee Malhotra, Alexandra Aliferis and Zaka Zia
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:32
  46. Patients discharged against medical advice (DAMA) act as a high-risk population for the Emergency Department (ED), regardless of their presentations, and can pose a serious burden for the hospital. This study ...

    Authors: Feras H. Abuzeyad, Moonis Farooq, Salah Farhat Alam, Mudhaffar Ismael Ibrahim, Luma Bashmi, Shaikha Sami Aljawder, Najeh Ellouze, Abdulla Almusalam, Stephanie Hsu and Priya Das
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:31
  47. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a common urgent condition at the emergency department (ED). However, current guidelines for diagnosis do not specify the juncture at which blood cultures should be taken. The dec...

    Authors: Pariwat Phungoen, Nunchalit Lerdprawat, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth, Verajit Chotmongkol, Kamonwon Ienghong, Sumana Sumritrin and Korakot Apiratwarakul
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:30

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