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  1. The concept that upper extremities can be used as an infusion route during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnant women is a reasonable recommendation considering the characteristic circulation of pregnant ...

    Authors: Eishin Nakamura, Shinji Takahashi, Shigetaka Matsunaga, Hiroaki Tanaka, Marie Furuta and Atsushi Sakurai
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:151
  2. Undertriage of major trauma patients is unavoidable, especially in the trauma system of rural areas. Timely stabilization and transfer of critical trauma patients remains a great challenge for hospitals with l...

    Authors: Chih-Jung Wang, Tsung-Han Yang, Kuo-Shu Hung, Chun-Hsien Wu, Shu-Ting Yen, Yi-Ting Yen and Yan-Shen Shan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:150
  3. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels have previously been associated with readmission and mortality in acute medical patients in the ED. However, no specific cut-offs for suPAR have ...

    Authors: Seppälä Santeri, Andersen Andreas Peter, Nyyssönen Kristiina, Eugen-Olsen Jesper and Hyppölä Harri
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:149
  4. Pre-hospital services are not well developed in Vietnam, especially the lack of a trauma system of care. Thus, the prognosis of traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) might differ from that of other c...

    Authors: Son Ngoc Do, Chinh Quoc Luong, Dung Thi Pham, My Ha Nguyen, Tra Thanh Ton, Quoc Trong Ai Hoang, Dat Tuan Nguyen, Thao Thi Ngoc Pham, Hanh Trong Hoang, Dai Quoc Khuong, Quan Huu Nguyen, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Tung Thanh Tran, Long Duc Vu, Chi Van Nguyen, Bryan Francis McNally…
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:148
  5. Monocyte Distribution Width (MDW), a simple proxy marker of innate monocyte activation, can be used for the early recognition of sepsis along with Procalcitonin. This study explored the added value of MDW as a...

    Authors: Ennio Polilli, Antonella Frattari, Jessica Elisabetta Esposito, Andrea Stanziale, Giuliana Giurdanella, Giancarlo Di Iorio, Fabrizio Carinci and Giustino Parruti
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:147
  6. Emergency care continues to be a challenge, since patients’ arrival is unscheduled and could occur at the same time which may fill the Emergency Department with non-urgent patients. Triaging is an integral par...

    Authors: Saleh Alshaibi, Tala AlBassri, Suliman AlQeuflie, Winnie Philip and Nesrin Alharthy
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:146
  7. Diagnostic discrepancy (DD) is a common phenomenon in healthcare, but little is known about its organisational determinants and consequences. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate this among selected emer...

    Authors: Line Stjernholm Tipsmark, Børge Obel, Tommy Andersson and Rikke Søgaard
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:145
  8. Drug-free tracheal intubation has been a common intervention in the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for many years, however its use by paramedics has recently been the subject of much debate. Recent ...

    Authors: Silas Houghton Budd, Eleanor Alexander-Elborough, Richard Brandon, Chris Fudge, Scott Hardy, Laura Hopkins, Ben Paul, Sloane Philips, Sarah Thatcher and Paul Winsor
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:144
  9. To better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital healthcare, we studied activity in the emergency department (ED) and acute medicine department of a major UK hospital.

    Authors: Michael E. Reschen, Jordan Bowen, Alex Novak, Matthew Giles, Sudhir Singh, Daniel Lasserson and Christopher A. O’Callaghan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:143
  10. Deciding whether a cranial Computed Tomography (CT) scan in a patient with minor head trauma (MHT) is necessary or not has always been challenging. Diagnosing Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a fundamental part...

    Authors: Taraneh Naghibi, Mina Rostami, Behrad Jamali, Zhaleh Karimimoghaddam, Alireza Zeraatchi and Asghar Jafari Rouhi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:142
  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be associated with myocardial injury. Identification of at-risk patients and mechanisms underlying cardiac involvement in COVID-19 remains uncle...

    Authors: Hugo De Carvalho, Lucas Leonard-Pons, Julien Segard, Nicolas Goffinet, François Javaudin, Arnaud Martinage, Guillaume Cattin, Severin Tiberghien, Dylan Therasse, Marc Trotignon, Fabien Arabucki, Simon Ribes, Quentin Le Bastard and Emmanuel Montassier
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:141
  12. Increasing demand on emergency healthcare systems has prompted introduction of new healthcare service models including the provision of GP services in or alongside emergency departments. In England this led to...

    Authors: Alison Cooper, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Matthew Cooke, Peter Hibbert, Thomas Hughes, Faris Hussain, Aloysius Siriwardena, Helen Snooks, Liam J. Donaldson and Adrian Edwards
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:139
  13. Internationally increasing demand for emergency care is driving innovation within emergency services. The Alternative Pre-Hospital Pathway (APP) Team is one such Community Emergency Medicine (CEM) initiative d...

    Authors: Andrew Patton, Cathal O’Donnell, Owen Keane, Kieran Henry, Donal Crowley, Adrian Collins, Eoghan Redmond, Nicky Glynn, Martin Dunne and Conor Deasy
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:138
  14. Early routine intubation in motor-complete cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) above the C5 level is a conventional protocol to prevent unexpected respiratory exacerbation (RE). However, in the context of recen...

    Authors: Takafumi Yonemitsu, Azuna Kinoshita, Keiji Nagata, Mika Morishita, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi and Seiya Kato
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:136
  15. Clinical reasoning is a crucial task within the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care process. Both contextual and cognitive factors make the task susceptible to errors. Understanding the EMS care process’ str...

    Authors: Bert Dercksen, Michel M. R. F. Struys, Fokie Cnossen and Wolter Paans
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:135
  16. Optimal multiple trauma care should be continuously provided during the day and night. Several studies have demonstrated worse outcomes and higher mortality in patients admitted at night. This study involved t...

    Authors: Stefanie Fitschen-Oestern, Sebastian Lippross, Rolf Lefering, Tim Klüter, Matthias Weuster, Georg Maximilian Franke, Nora Kirsten, Michael Müller, Ove Schröder and Andreas Seekamp
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:134
  17. Patients presenting with non-specific complaints (NSC), such as generalised weakness, or feeling unwell, constitute about 20% of emergency care consultations. In contrast to patients presenting with specific s...

    Authors: Tanja Birrenbach, Andrea Geissbühler, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Wolf E. Hautz, Thomas C. Sauter and Martin Müller
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:133
  18. Shock and organ damage occur in critically ill patients in the emergency department because of biological responses to invasion, and cytokines play an important role in their development. It is important to pr...

    Authors: Shigeto Ishikawa, Yuto Teshima, Hiroki Otsubo, Takashi Shimazui, Taka-aki Nakada, Osamu Takasu, Kenichi Matsuda, Junichi Sasaki, Masakazu Nabeta, Takeshi Moriguchi, Takayuki Shibusawa, Toshihiko Mayumi and Shigeto Oda
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:132
  19. Patients who experience harms from alcohol and other substance use often seek care in the emergency department (ED). ED visits related to alcohol withdrawal have increased across the world during the COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Justin Jek-Kahn Koh, Madeline Malczewska, Mary M. Doyle-Waters and Jessica Moe
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:131

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:17

  20. Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a potentially lethal pathology and is often encountered in the prehospital setting. Although an association between prehospital arterial hypercapnia in AHF patients and admission i...

    Authors: Mathias Fabre, Christophe A. Fehlmann, Kevin E. Boczar, Birgit Gartner, Catherine G. Zimmermann-Ivol, François Sarasin and Laurent Suppan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:130
  21. SIRS and qSOFA are two ancillary scoring tools that have been used globally, inside and outside of ICU to predict adverse outcomes of infections such as secondary peritonitis. A tertiary teaching hospital in U...

    Authors: Emmanuel Nkonge, Olivia Kituuka, William Ocen, Herbert Ariaka, Alfred Ogwal and Badru Ssekitoleko
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:128
  22. To identify amino acids that can predict risk of 90-day mortality in patients with acute dyspnea.

    Authors: Karolin Wiklund, Klas Gränsbo, Peter Almgren, Marjaneh Peyman, Lena Tegnér, Maria Toni-Bengtsson, Mattias Wieloch and Olle Melander
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:127
  23. It remains controversial whether to include calf veins in the initial ultrasound evaluation of suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We sought to investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of iso...

    Authors: Thomas Heller, Mattes Becher, Jens-Christian Kröger, Ebba Beller, Susanne Heller, Raimund Höft, Marc-André Weber and Felix G. Meinel
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:126
  24. Triage is a critical component of prehospital emergency care. Effective triage of patients allows them to receive appropriate care and to judiciously use personnel and hospital resources. In many low-resource ...

    Authors: Julia Dixon, Taylor Burkholder, Jennifer Pigoga, Michael Lee, Kubendhren Moodley, Shaheem de Vries, Lee Wallis and Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:125
  25. The goal of every emergency department is to provide the highest quality services in the shortest time using limited resources. However, occupational violence is so prevalent among pre-hospital paramedic perso...

    Authors: Marziye Hadian, Alireza Jabbari and Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:124
  26. The transfer time for critically ill patients from the emergency department (ED) to the Intensive care unit (ICU) must be minimal; however, some factors prolong the transfer time, which may delay intensive car...

    Authors: Helen Teklie, Hywet Engida, Birhanu Melaku and Abdata Workina
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:123
  27. The Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, and Exposure (ABCDE) approach is widely recommended and taught in many resuscitation courses. This study assessed the adherence to the ABCDE algorithm and whethe...

    Authors: Marjolein Linders, Mathijs Binkhorst, Jos M. T. Draaisma, Arno F. J. van Heijst and Marije Hogeveen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:121
  28. Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest is a common and fatal problem. Rescuing patients with this problem by pre-hospital emergency medical services is associated with various barriers and facilitators. Identi...

    Authors: Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri, Hassan Nouri-Sari, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh Hajibabaee and Mojtaba Senmar
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:120
  29. Disasters may result in mass casualties and an imbalance between health care demands and supplies. This imbalance necessitates the prioritization of the victims based on the severity of their condition. Contri...

    Authors: Vahid Ghanbari, Ali Ardalan, Armin Zareiyan, Amir Nejati, Dan Hanfling, Alireza Bagheri and Leili Rostamnia
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:119
  30. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening medical emergency that needs prompt diagnosis and management. Providing urgent care is a key determinant of quality in the emergency department (ED) and tim...

    Authors: Ali Hassan, Omran Al Dandan, Khaled Awary, Besma Bukhamsin, Reema Bukhamseen, Alaa Alzaki, Amal Al-Sulaibeekh and Hind S. Alsaif
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:118
  31. Increasing hospitalization rates present unique challenges to manage limited inpatient bed capacity and services. Transport by paramedics to the emergency department (ED) may influence hospital admission decis...

    Authors: Ryan P. Strum, Fabrice I. Mowbray, Andrew Worster, Walter Tavares, Matthew S. Leyenaar, Rebecca H. Correia and Andrew P. Costa
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:117
  32. The Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the battleground for multiple armed conflicts, resulting in many fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries (F&NFFIs). Chronic insecurity has stressed the healt...

    Authors: Paul Munguakonkwa Budema, Roméo Bujiriri Murhega, Tshibambe Nathanael Tshimbombu, Georges Kuyigwa Toha, Fabrice Gulimwentuga Cikomola, Paterne Safari Mudekereza, Léon-Emmanuel Mubenga, Ghislain Maheshe-Balemba, Darck Cubaka Badesire and Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:116
  33. The safety of the Emergency Medical Service’s (EMS’s) non-conveyance decision was evaluated by EMS re-contacts, primary health care or emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalization within 48 h. The sec...

    Authors: Jani Paulin, Jouni Kurola, Mari Koivisto and Timo Iirola
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:115
  34. The aim of this trial was to compare a video- and a simulation-based teaching method to the conventional lecture-based method, hypothesizing that the video- and simulation-based teaching methods would lead to ...

    Authors: Niklas Breindahl, Anders Granholm, Theo Walther Jensen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Helge Myklebust, Freddy Lippert and Anne Lippert
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:114
  35. Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disorder with frequent complications. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive factors of finding a complication of CD using abdominopelvic CT-scan in patients...

    Authors: Mikael Verdalle-Cazes, Cloé Charpentier, Coralie Benard, Luc-Marie Joly, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Guillaume Savoye and Céline Savoye-Collet
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:113
  36. Currently, the risk stratification of critically ill patient with chest pain is a challenge. We aimed to use machine learning approach to predict the critical care outcomes in patients with chest pain, and sim...

    Authors: Ting Ting Wu, Ruo Fei Zheng, Zhi Zhong Lin, Hai Rong Gong and Hong Li
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:112
  37. Limited research regarding administration of timed medication infusions in the prehospital environment has identified wide variability with accuracy, timing, and overall feasibility. This study was a quality i...

    Authors: Samuel M. Galvagno, James Cloepin, Jeannie Hannas, Kurt S. Rubach, Andrew Naumann and Jonathan Wendell
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:111
  38. Ambulance care professionals are regularly confronted with critical incidents that increase risks for mental health disorders. To minimize these risks, it is important that ambulance care professionals adequat...

    Authors: Jorik Loef, Lilian C. M. Vloet, Peter-Hans Vierhoven, Leonie van der Schans, Yvonne Neyman-Lubbers, Christine de Vries-de Winter and Remco H. A. Ebben
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:110
  39. Penetrating craniocerebral injuries (PCCI) are types of open head injuries caused by sharp objects or missiles, resulting in communication between the cranial cavity and the external environment. This conditio...

    Authors: Paterne Safari Mudekereza, Gauthier Bahizire Murhula, Charles Kachungunu, Amani Mudekereza, Fabrice Cikomola, Leon-Emmanuel Mukengeshai Mubenga, Patrick Birindwa Balungwe, Paul Munguakonkwa Budema, Christian Molima, Erick Namegabe Mugabo and Hervé Monka Lekuya
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:109
  40. The selection of initial empirical antibiotics is an important issue in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to investigate whether empirical antibiotic prescription con...

    Authors: Seung Hyun Kang, You Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dong-Hyun Jang, Yu Jin Kim and Inwon Park
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:108
  41. Computed tomography (CT) is associated with a risk of cancer development. Strategies to reduce radiation doses vary between centers. We compared radiation doses of CT brain studies between pediatric and genera...

    Authors: Xi Min Tan, Mohammad Taufik Bin Mohamed Shah, Shu-Ling Chong, Yong-Kwang Gene Ong, Peck Har Ang, Nur Diana Bte Zakaria, Khai Pin Lee and Jen Heng Pek
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:106
  42. Up to a fourth of patients at emergency department (ED) presentation suffer from acute deterioration of renal function, which is an important risk factor for bleeding events in patients on oral anticoagulation...

    Authors: Martin Müller, Michaela Traschitzger, Michael Nagler, Spyridon Arampatzis, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos and Thomas C. Sauter
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:105
  43. Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Traum...

    Authors: Hiromichi Naito, Tetsuya Yumoto, Takashi Yorifuji, Tsuyoshi Nojima, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Taihei Yamada, Kohei Tsukahara, Mototaka Inaba, Takeshi Nishimura, Takenori Uehara and Atsunori Nakao
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:104
  44. To explore the predictive value of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score for death in the emergency department (ED) resuscitation room among adult trauma patients.

    Authors: Wenjuan Huang, Peng Yang, Feng Xu and Du Chen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:103
  45. The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on the utilization of health care services, including Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Social distancing measures taken to prevent the spread of the disease have...

    Authors: Michael Azbel, Mikko Heinänen, Mitja Lääperi and Markku Kuisma
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:102

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:140

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