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  1. Shock and organ damage occur in critically ill patients in the emergency department because of biological responses to invasion, and cytokines play an important role in their development. It is important to pr...

    Authors: Shigeto Ishikawa, Yuto Teshima, Hiroki Otsubo, Takashi Shimazui, Taka-aki Nakada, Osamu Takasu, Kenichi Matsuda, Junichi Sasaki, Masakazu Nabeta, Takeshi Moriguchi, Takayuki Shibusawa, Toshihiko Mayumi and Shigeto Oda
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:132
  2. Patients who experience harms from alcohol and other substance use often seek care in the emergency department (ED). ED visits related to alcohol withdrawal have increased across the world during the COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Justin Jek-Kahn Koh, Madeline Malczewska, Mary M. Doyle-Waters and Jessica Moe
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:131

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:17

  3. Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a potentially lethal pathology and is often encountered in the prehospital setting. Although an association between prehospital arterial hypercapnia in AHF patients and admission i...

    Authors: Mathias Fabre, Christophe A. Fehlmann, Kevin E. Boczar, Birgit Gartner, Catherine G. Zimmermann-Ivol, François Sarasin and Laurent Suppan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:130
  4. SIRS and qSOFA are two ancillary scoring tools that have been used globally, inside and outside of ICU to predict adverse outcomes of infections such as secondary peritonitis. A tertiary teaching hospital in U...

    Authors: Emmanuel Nkonge, Olivia Kituuka, William Ocen, Herbert Ariaka, Alfred Ogwal and Badru Ssekitoleko
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:128
  5. To identify amino acids that can predict risk of 90-day mortality in patients with acute dyspnea.

    Authors: Karolin Wiklund, Klas Gränsbo, Peter Almgren, Marjaneh Peyman, Lena Tegnér, Maria Toni-Bengtsson, Mattias Wieloch and Olle Melander
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:127
  6. It remains controversial whether to include calf veins in the initial ultrasound evaluation of suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We sought to investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of iso...

    Authors: Thomas Heller, Mattes Becher, Jens-Christian Kröger, Ebba Beller, Susanne Heller, Raimund Höft, Marc-André Weber and Felix G. Meinel
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:126
  7. Triage is a critical component of prehospital emergency care. Effective triage of patients allows them to receive appropriate care and to judiciously use personnel and hospital resources. In many low-resource ...

    Authors: Julia Dixon, Taylor Burkholder, Jennifer Pigoga, Michael Lee, Kubendhren Moodley, Shaheem de Vries, Lee Wallis and Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:125
  8. The goal of every emergency department is to provide the highest quality services in the shortest time using limited resources. However, occupational violence is so prevalent among pre-hospital paramedic perso...

    Authors: Marziye Hadian, Alireza Jabbari and Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:124
  9. The transfer time for critically ill patients from the emergency department (ED) to the Intensive care unit (ICU) must be minimal; however, some factors prolong the transfer time, which may delay intensive car...

    Authors: Helen Teklie, Hywet Engida, Birhanu Melaku and Abdata Workina
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:123
  10. The Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, and Exposure (ABCDE) approach is widely recommended and taught in many resuscitation courses. This study assessed the adherence to the ABCDE algorithm and whethe...

    Authors: Marjolein Linders, Mathijs Binkhorst, Jos M. T. Draaisma, Arno F. J. van Heijst and Marije Hogeveen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:121
  11. Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest is a common and fatal problem. Rescuing patients with this problem by pre-hospital emergency medical services is associated with various barriers and facilitators. Identi...

    Authors: Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri, Hassan Nouri-Sari, Fatemeh Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh Hajibabaee and Mojtaba Senmar
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:120
  12. Disasters may result in mass casualties and an imbalance between health care demands and supplies. This imbalance necessitates the prioritization of the victims based on the severity of their condition. Contri...

    Authors: Vahid Ghanbari, Ali Ardalan, Armin Zareiyan, Amir Nejati, Dan Hanfling, Alireza Bagheri and Leili Rostamnia
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:119
  13. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common life-threatening medical emergency that needs prompt diagnosis and management. Providing urgent care is a key determinant of quality in the emergency department (ED) and tim...

    Authors: Ali Hassan, Omran Al Dandan, Khaled Awary, Besma Bukhamsin, Reema Bukhamseen, Alaa Alzaki, Amal Al-Sulaibeekh and Hind S. Alsaif
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:118
  14. Increasing hospitalization rates present unique challenges to manage limited inpatient bed capacity and services. Transport by paramedics to the emergency department (ED) may influence hospital admission decis...

    Authors: Ryan P. Strum, Fabrice I. Mowbray, Andrew Worster, Walter Tavares, Matthew S. Leyenaar, Rebecca H. Correia and Andrew P. Costa
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:117
  15. The Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the battleground for multiple armed conflicts, resulting in many fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries (F&NFFIs). Chronic insecurity has stressed the healt...

    Authors: Paul Munguakonkwa Budema, Roméo Bujiriri Murhega, Tshibambe Nathanael Tshimbombu, Georges Kuyigwa Toha, Fabrice Gulimwentuga Cikomola, Paterne Safari Mudekereza, Léon-Emmanuel Mubenga, Ghislain Maheshe-Balemba, Darck Cubaka Badesire and Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:116
  16. The safety of the Emergency Medical Service’s (EMS’s) non-conveyance decision was evaluated by EMS re-contacts, primary health care or emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalization within 48 h. The sec...

    Authors: Jani Paulin, Jouni Kurola, Mari Koivisto and Timo Iirola
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:115
  17. The aim of this trial was to compare a video- and a simulation-based teaching method to the conventional lecture-based method, hypothesizing that the video- and simulation-based teaching methods would lead to ...

    Authors: Niklas Breindahl, Anders Granholm, Theo Walther Jensen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Helge Myklebust, Freddy Lippert and Anne Lippert
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:114
  18. Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disorder with frequent complications. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive factors of finding a complication of CD using abdominopelvic CT-scan in patients...

    Authors: Mikael Verdalle-Cazes, Cloé Charpentier, Coralie Benard, Luc-Marie Joly, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Guillaume Savoye and Céline Savoye-Collet
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:113
  19. Currently, the risk stratification of critically ill patient with chest pain is a challenge. We aimed to use machine learning approach to predict the critical care outcomes in patients with chest pain, and sim...

    Authors: Ting Ting Wu, Ruo Fei Zheng, Zhi Zhong Lin, Hai Rong Gong and Hong Li
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:112
  20. Limited research regarding administration of timed medication infusions in the prehospital environment has identified wide variability with accuracy, timing, and overall feasibility. This study was a quality i...

    Authors: Samuel M. Galvagno, James Cloepin, Jeannie Hannas, Kurt S. Rubach, Andrew Naumann and Jonathan Wendell
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:111
  21. Ambulance care professionals are regularly confronted with critical incidents that increase risks for mental health disorders. To minimize these risks, it is important that ambulance care professionals adequat...

    Authors: Jorik Loef, Lilian C. M. Vloet, Peter-Hans Vierhoven, Leonie van der Schans, Yvonne Neyman-Lubbers, Christine de Vries-de Winter and Remco H. A. Ebben
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:110
  22. Penetrating craniocerebral injuries (PCCI) are types of open head injuries caused by sharp objects or missiles, resulting in communication between the cranial cavity and the external environment. This conditio...

    Authors: Paterne Safari Mudekereza, Gauthier Bahizire Murhula, Charles Kachungunu, Amani Mudekereza, Fabrice Cikomola, Leon-Emmanuel Mukengeshai Mubenga, Patrick Birindwa Balungwe, Paul Munguakonkwa Budema, Christian Molima, Erick Namegabe Mugabo and Hervé Monka Lekuya
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:109
  23. The selection of initial empirical antibiotics is an important issue in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to investigate whether empirical antibiotic prescription con...

    Authors: Seung Hyun Kang, You Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dong-Hyun Jang, Yu Jin Kim and Inwon Park
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:108
  24. Computed tomography (CT) is associated with a risk of cancer development. Strategies to reduce radiation doses vary between centers. We compared radiation doses of CT brain studies between pediatric and genera...

    Authors: Xi Min Tan, Mohammad Taufik Bin Mohamed Shah, Shu-Ling Chong, Yong-Kwang Gene Ong, Peck Har Ang, Nur Diana Bte Zakaria, Khai Pin Lee and Jen Heng Pek
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:106
  25. Up to a fourth of patients at emergency department (ED) presentation suffer from acute deterioration of renal function, which is an important risk factor for bleeding events in patients on oral anticoagulation...

    Authors: Martin Müller, Michaela Traschitzger, Michael Nagler, Spyridon Arampatzis, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos and Thomas C. Sauter
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:105
  26. Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Traum...

    Authors: Hiromichi Naito, Tetsuya Yumoto, Takashi Yorifuji, Tsuyoshi Nojima, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Taihei Yamada, Kohei Tsukahara, Mototaka Inaba, Takeshi Nishimura, Takenori Uehara and Atsunori Nakao
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:104
  27. To explore the predictive value of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score for death in the emergency department (ED) resuscitation room among adult trauma patients.

    Authors: Wenjuan Huang, Peng Yang, Feng Xu and Du Chen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:103
  28. The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on the utilization of health care services, including Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Social distancing measures taken to prevent the spread of the disease have...

    Authors: Michael Azbel, Mikko Heinänen, Mitja Lääperi and Markku Kuisma
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:102

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:140

  29. Medical dispatchers have limited information to assess the appropriate emergency response when citizens call the emergency number. We explored whether live video from bystanders’ smartphones changed emergency ...

    Authors: Gitte Linderoth, Freddy Lippert, Doris Østergaard, Annette K. Ersbøll, Christian S. Meyhoff, Fredrik Folke and Helle C. Christensen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:101
  30. First aid performed by immediate responders can be the difference between life and death in the case of trauma with massive bleeding. To develop effective training programs to teach bleeding control to laypers...

    Authors: Erik Prytz, Rachel Phillips, Susanna Lönnqvist, Marc Friberg and Carl-Oscar Jonson
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:100
  31. Authors: Mohammad H. Al-Qahtani, Abdullah A. Yousef, Bassam H. Awary, Waleed H. Albuali, Mohammed A. Al Ghamdi, Reem S. AlOmar, Nouf A. AlShamlan, Haneen A. Yousef, Sameerah Motabgani, Naheel A. AlAmer, Kawthar M. Alsawad, Fatimah Y. Altaweel, Kawther S. Altaweel, Roaya A. AlQunais, Fatima A. Alsubaie and Malak A. Al Shammari
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:99

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:72

  32. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a serious obstetric emergency, and one of the top five causes of maternal mortality globally. The most common causes of PPH include uterine atony, placental disorders, birth trau...

    Authors: Ann-Chatrin Linqvist Leonardsen, Ann Karin Helgesen, Linn Ulvøy and Vigdis Abrahamsen Grøndahl
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:98
  33. Although not routinely established during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), video-assisted CPR has been described as beneficial in the communication with emergency medical service (EMS) authorities in out-o...

    Authors: Christopher Plata, Martin Nellessen, Rebecca Roth, Hannes Ecker, Bernd W. Böttiger, Johannes Löser and Wolfgang A. Wetsch
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:96
  34. As the first link in the chain of providing healthcare services in the frontline of the battle against COVID-19, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are faced with various challenges, which affect their...

    Authors: Fateme Mohammadi, Banafsheh Tehranineshat, Mostafa Bijani and Ali Asghar Khaleghi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:95
  35. In armed conflicts, civilian health care struggles to cope. Being able to predict what resources are needed is therefore vital. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) implemented in the 1990s the ...

    Authors: Måns Muhrbeck, Zaher Osman, Johan von Schreeb, Andreas Wladis and Peter Andersson
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:94
  36. Prehospital triage protocols typically try to select patients with Injury Severity Score (ISS) above 15 for direct transportation to a Level-1 trauma center. However, ISS does not necessarily discriminate betw...

    Authors: Charlie A. Sewalt, Benjamin Y. Gravesteijn, Daan Nieboer, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Dennis Den Hartog and David Van Klaveren
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:93
  37. Frequent users of emergency departments (FUED) account for a disproportionate number of emergency department (ED) visits and contribute to a wide range of challenges for ED staff. While several research has do...

    Authors: Michael von Allmen, Véronique S. Grazioli, Miriam Kasztura, Oriane Chastonay, Joanna C. Moullin, Olivier Hugli, Jean-Bernard Daeppen and Patrick Bodenmann
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:92
  38. Adverse attitudes and insufficient knowledge about organ donation after Circulatory Determined Death (DCD) among emergency staff can have important consequences for the proper identification of potential DCD d...

    Authors: Jafar Kondori, Rouzbeh Rajaei Ghafouri, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh Attari, Stephen R. Large and Zahra Sheikhalipour
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:91
  39. Endotracheal intubation continues to be the gold standard for securing the airway in emergency situations. Difficult intubation is still a dreadful situation when securing the airway.

    Authors: Hannes Ecker, Simone Kolvenbach, Sebastian Stranz, Holger Herff and Wolfgang A. Wetsch
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:90
  40. The vast impact of COVID-19 call for the identification of clinical parameter that can help predict a torpid evolution. Among these, endothelial injury has been proposed as one of the main pathophysiological m...

    Authors: Sara Velazquez, Rodrigo Madurga, José María Castellano, Jesús Rodriguez-Pascual, Santiago Ruiz de Aguiar Diaz Obregon, Sara Jimeno, Juan Ignacio Montero, Paula Sol Ventura Wichner and Alejandro López-Escobar
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:89
  41. Some emergency departments use triage scales, such as the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale and Japan Urgent Stroke Triage Score, to detect life-threatening situations. However, these protocols have not been us...

    Authors: Noriaki Yamada, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Takahiro Yoshida, Sho Nachi, Hideshi Okada and Shinji Ogura
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:87
  42. Emergency general surgery (EGS) patients presenting with sepsis remain a challenge. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommends a 30 mL/kg fluid bolus in these patients, but recent studies suggest an association ...

    Authors: Benjamin Moran, Erin Major, Joseph A. Kufera, Samuel A. Tisherman and Jose Diaz
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:86
  43. To explore the role of a first-aid fast track channel in rescuing children with airway foreign bodies and to analyse and summarize the experience and lessons of the first-aid fast track channel in rescuing air...

    Authors: Yong-chao Chen, Zhi-xiong Xian, Sai-hong Han, Lan Li and Yi-shu Teng
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:85
  44. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition, causing almost one fifth of all deaths worldwide. The aim of the current study was to identify variables predictive of 7- and 30-day mortality among variables reflective...

    Authors: Adam Karlsson, Willem Stassen, Amy Loutfi, Ulrika Wallgren, Eric Larsson and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:84
  45. This study aimed to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge level and factors affecting the current CPR knowledge level among EMTs and paramedics working in the Kayseri 112 emergency health...

    Authors: Celal Levent Kayadelen, Ayşe Nilgün Kayadelen and Polat Durukan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2021 21:82

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