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  1. Content type: Research article

    Paramedics are frequently required to perform tracheal intubation, a potentially life-saving manoeuvre in severely ill patients, in the prehospital setting. However, direct laryngoscopy is often more difficult...

    Authors: Sajid Nasim, Chrisen H Maharaj, Ihsan Butt, Muhammad A Malik, John O' Donnell, Brendan D Higgins, Brian H Harte and John G Laffey

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2009 9:2

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Base deficit (BD), anion gap (AG), and albumin corrected anion gap (ACAG) are used by clinicians to assess the presence or absence of hyperlactatemia (HL). We set out to determine if these tools can diagnose t...

    Authors: Lakhmir S Chawla, Shirley Shih, Danielle Davison, Christopher Junker and Michael G Seneff

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:18

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Psychiatric and substance use problems are commonly found to be contributing factors to frequent Emergency Department (ED) use, yet little research has focused on the association between substance use and psyc...

    Authors: Geoffrey M Curran, Greer Sullivan, Keith Williams, Xiaotong Han, Elise Allee and Kathryn J Kotrla

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:17

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  4. Content type: Research article

    High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance ...

    Authors: Tom Sterud, Erlend Hem, Øivind Ekeberg and Bjørn Lau

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:16

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poison...

    Authors: Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut E Hovda, Mari A Bjornaas, Anne K Nore, Jose CP Figueiredo, Oivind Ekeberg and Dag Jacobsen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:15

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  6. Content type: Research article

    In an out-of-hospital emergency situation bystander intervention is essential for a sufficient functioning of the chain of rescue. The basic measures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Basic Life Support – BLS)...

    Authors: Christoph HR Wiese, Henryk Wilke, Jan Bahr and Bernhard M Graf

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:14

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander C...

    Authors: Christian Vaillancourt, Jeremy Grimshaw, Jamie C Brehaut, Martin Osmond, Manya L Charette, George A Wells and Ian G Stiell

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:13

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    Cardiac arrest is the leading cause of mortality in Canada, and the overall survival rate for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceeds 5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to i...

    Authors: Christian Vaillancourt, Manya L Charette, Ian G Stiell and George A Wells

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:12

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Emergency Department (ED) medical officers are often the first medical responders to emergencies in Jamaica because pre-hospital emergency response services are not universally available. Over the past decade,...

    Authors: Ivor W Crandon, Hyacinth E Harding, Shamir O Cawich, Eric W Williams and Jean Williams-Johnson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:11

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    Trauma is a major source of morbidity and mortality, especially in people below the age of 50 years. For the evaluation of trauma patients CT scanning has gained wide acceptance in and provides detailed inform...

    Authors: Teun P Saltzherr, PH Ping Fung Kon Jin, Fred C Bakker, Kees J Ponsen, Jan SK Luitse, Mark Scholing, Georgios F Giannakopoulos, Ludo FM Beenen, C Pieter Henny, Ger M Koole, Hans B Reitsma, Marcel GW Dijkgraaf, Patrick MM Bossuyt and J Carel Goslings

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:10

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency m...

    Authors: Junaid A Razzak, Adnan A Hyder, Tasleem Akhtar, Mubashir Khan and Uzma R Khan

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:8

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The goals of the study were to assess the relationship between age and processes of care in emergency department (ED) patients admitted with pneumonia and to identify independent predictors of failure to meet ...

    Authors: Jeffrey M Caterino, Brian C Hiestand and Daniel R Martin

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:6

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measu...

    Authors: Larry D Lynd, Kathryn J Richardson, Roy A Purssell, Riyad B Abu-Laban, Jeffery R Brubacher, Katherine J Lepik and Marco LA Sivilotti

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:5

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In 1999, the laryngeal tube (VBM Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) was introduced as a new supraglottic airway. It was designed to allow either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation during anaesthesia; ...

    Authors: Christoph HR Wiese, Utz Bartels, Alexander Schultens, Tobias Steffen, Andreas Torney, Jan Bahr and Bernhard M Graf

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:4

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Chest pain is the second most common chief complaint in North American emergency departments. Data from the U.S. suggest that 2.1% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and 2.3% of patients with unstabl...

    Authors: Erik P Hess, George A Wells, Allan Jaffe and Ian G Stiell

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2008 8:3

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  16. Content type: Research article

    A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs) to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-pre...

    Authors: Jane Williams, Darren Walter and Kirsty Challen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:20

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The rising incidence of methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) infections is a concern for emergency practitioners. While studies have examined MRSA in inpatients, few have focused on emergency department pop...

    Authors: Christian H Jacobus, Christopher J Lindsell, Sabrina D Leach, Gregory J Fermann, Amy Beth Kressel and Laura E Rue

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:19

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Simulation is an essential tool in modern medical education. The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, the introduction of new generation simulators in an adult life support (ALS) edu...

    Authors: José Antonio Iglesias-Vázquez, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez, Mónica Penas-Penas, Luís Sánchez-Santos, Maria Cegarra-García and Maria Victoria Barreiro-Díaz

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:18

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Ambulance usage in Japan has increased consistently because it is free under the national health insurance system. The introduction of refusal for ambulance transfer is being debated nationally. The purpose of...

    Authors: Yasuhiro Toyoda, Yoshio Matsuo, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hidekazu Fujiwara, Toshio Takatorige and Hiroyasu Iso

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:17

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Tobacco use counseling interventions delivered in the primary care setting are efficacious, but limited evidence exists regarding their feasibility or efficacy in the Emergency Department (ED). ED randomized c...

    Authors: Nicola EE Schiebel and Jon O Ebbert

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Sustained hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The specific aim was to determine if a nurse initiated insulin infusion protocol (IIP) was effective in maintaini...

    Authors: Melissa M Barth, Lance J Oyen, Karen T Warfield, Jennifer L Elmer, Laura K Evenson, Ann N Tescher, Philip J Kuper, Michael P Bannon, Ognjen Gajic and J Christopher Farmer

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:14

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  22. Content type: Research article

    There are few outcomes experienced by children receiving care in the Emergency Department (ED) that are amenable to measuring for the purposes of assessing of quality of care. The purpose of this study was to ...

    Authors: Madan Dharmar, James P Marcin, Nathan Kuppermann, Emily R Andrada, Stacey Cole, Danielle J Harvey and Patrick S Romano

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:13

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Recently completed clinical trials have shown that certain interventions improve the outcome of the critically ill. To facilitate the implementation of these interventions, professional organizations have deve...

    Authors: Bekele Afessa, Ognjen Gajic, Mark T Keegan, Edward G Seferian, Rolf D Hubmayr and Steve G Peters

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:10

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED), which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (...

    Authors: Wytze Laméris, Adrienne van Randen, Marcel GW Dijkgraaf, Patrick MM Bossuyt, Jaap Stoker and Marja A Boermeester

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:9

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of em...

    Authors: Eugene J Kongnyuy, Pius Ngassa, Nelson Fomulu, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Luc Kouam and Anderson S Doh

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:7

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Dyspnea is a common chief complaint in the emergency department (ED); differentiating heart failure (HF) from other causes can be challenging. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a new diagnostic test for HF fo...

    Authors: Deborah Korenstein, Juan P Wisnivesky, Peter Wyer, Rhodes Adler, Diego Ponieman and Thomas McGinn

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:6

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Patient satisfaction is of growing importance to providers of emergency medical services (EMS). Prior reports of patient satisfaction have frequently used resource-intensive telephone follow-up to assess satis...

    Authors: Aaron W Bernard, Christopher J Lindsell, Daniel A Handel, Lindsey Collett, Paul Gallo, Kevin D Kaiser and Donald Locasto

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:5

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) is a rare event in childhood. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of paediatric CRA and the immediate results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Galicia, a ...

    Authors: Pilar Blanco-Ons Fernández, Luis Sánchez-Santos, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez, José Antonio Iglesias-Vázquez, María Cegarra-García and Maria Victoria Barreiro-Díaz

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:3

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  29. Content type: Study protocol

    The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that ...

    Authors: Michael Eddleston, Edmund Juszczak, Nick A Buckley, Lalith Senarathna, Fahim Mohammed, Stuart Allen, Wasantha Dissanayake, Ariyasena Hittarage, Shifa Azher, K Jeganathan, Shaluka Jayamanne, MH Rezvi Sheriff and David A Warrell

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:2

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in the United States is largely unknown, particularly episodes that lead to an emergency department (ED) visit. We sought to address this gap and describe ED practice pat...

    Authors: Peter J Fagenholz, Carlos Fernández-del Castillo, N Stuart Harris, Andrea J Pelletier and Carlos A Camargo Jr

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2007 7:1

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Since previous studies suggest the emergency department (ED) misdiagnosis rate of heart failure is 10–20% we sought to describe the characteristics of ED patients misdiagnosed as non-decompensated heart failur...

    Authors: Sean P Collins, Christopher J Lindsell, W Frank Peacock, Daniel C Eckert, Jeff Askew and Alan B Storrow

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:11

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  32. Content type: Study protocol

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should...

    Authors: Yi Li, XueZhong Yu, Zhong Wang, HouLi Wang, XiangHuai Zhao, YuPing Cao, WeiZhan Wang and Michael Eddleston

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:10

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  33. Content type: Research article

    A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linea...

    Authors: Alan E Jones, Karl Kuehne, Michael Steuerwald and Jeffrey A Kline

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:9

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Refusal by the patient to travel after calling an emergency ambulance may lead to a preventable waste of scarce resources if it can be shown that an alternative more appropriate response could be employed. A g...

    Authors: Deborah Shaw, Jane V Dyas, Jo Middlemass, Anne Spaight, Maureen Briggs, Sarah Christopher and A Niroshan Siriwardena

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:8

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Endotracheal Tubes (ETTs) are commonly secured using adhesive tape, cloth tape, or commercial devices. The objectives of the study were (1) To compare degrees of movement of ETTs secured with 6 different comme...

    Authors: Paris B Lovett, Alexander Flaxman, Kai M Stürmann and Polly Bijur

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:7

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the Emergency Department (ED), but the cost of ED chest pain patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the direct hospital costs for unselect...

    Authors: Jakob L Forberg, Louise S Henriksen, Lars Edenbrandt and Ulf Ekelund

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:6

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Methylene bis(thiocyanate) (MBT) is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria.

    Authors: Claude Braun, Rainer Birck, Manfred V Singer, Peter Schnuelle, Fokko J van der Woude and Matthias Löhr

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:5

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Acute ankle injuries are one of the most common reasons for presenting to emergency departments, but only a small percentage of patients – approximately 15% – have clinically significant fractures. However, th...

    Authors: Shahram Yazdani, Hesam Jahandideh and Hossein Ghofrani

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:3

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  39. Content type: Research article

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was introduced in our institution in June 2003. Since then, there has been no protocol to guide the use of HFOV, and all decisions regarding ventilation strategies...

    Authors: Javier D Finkielman, Ognjen Gajic, J Christopher Farmer, Bekele Afessa and Rolf D Hubmayr

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2006 6:2

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