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  1. Regurgitation is a complication common during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This manikin study evaluated the effect of regurgitation during endotracheal intubation on CPR quality.

    Authors: Li-Wei Lin, James DuCanto, Chen-Yang Hsu, Yung-Cheng Su, Chi-Chieh Huang and Shih-Wen Hung
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:124
  2. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for trauma patients’ treatment, particularly for cases with open lower extremity fractures, which are considered major traumas requiring a comprehensive approach. Rece...

    Authors: Min Ji Kim, Kyung Min Yang, Hyung Min Hahn, Hyoseob Lim and Il Jae Lee
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:123
  3. We aimed to investigate clinical benefits and economic costs of inhaled methoxyflurane when used by ambulance staff for prehospital emergency patients with trauma. Comparison is to usual analgesic practice (UA...

    Authors: Murray D. Smith, Elise Rowan, Robert Spaight and Aloysius N. Siriwardena
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:122
  4. Although the prognosis of patients treated at specialized facilities has improved, the relationship between the number of patients treated at hospitals and prognosis is controversial and lacks constancy in tho...

    Authors: Takumi Tsuchida, Kota Ono, Kunihiko Maekawa, Mariko Hayamizu and Mineji Hayakawa
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:121

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:197

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:198

  5. The risk of choking increases with aging, and the number of cases of choking-induced cardiac arrest is increasing. However, few studies have examined the prognosis of choking-induced cardiac arrest. The aim of...

    Authors: Takahiro Miyoshi, Hideki Endo, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Koki Shimada, Hiraku Kumamaru, Nao Ichihara, Yoshiki Miyachi and Hiroaki Miyata
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:120

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:157

  6. Traumatic injuries are a leading cause of deaths in Norway, especially among younger males. Trauma-related mortality can be reduced by structural measures, such as organization of a trauma system. Many hospita...

    Authors: Ida Celine Bredin, Hedi Marina Joks Gaup, Guttorm Brattebø and Torben Wisborg
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:119
  7. The triage of patients presenting with chest pain on admission to the emergency department uses scales based on patient clinical presentation or an electrocardiogram (ECG). These scales have different sensitiv...

    Authors: Chiara Casarin, Anne-Sophie Pirot, Charles Gregoire, Laurence Van Der Haert, Patrick Vanden Berghe, Diego Castanares-Zapatero and Melanie Dechamps
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:118
  8. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of shock aimed at prevention of prolonged hypoperfusion has shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with undifferentiated shock. However, there is often...

    Authors: Asmaa Ramadan, Tamer Abdallah, Hassan Abdelsalam, Ahmed Mokhtar and Assem Abdel Razek
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:117
  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among ambulance personnel, but its prevalence varies between developed and developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the lived experience of potentia...

    Authors: Khalid Mufleh Alshahrani, Judith Johnson, Lawrence Hill, Tmam Abdulaziz Alghunaim, Raabia Sattar and Daryl B. O’Connor
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:116
  10. Tracheal intubation in the emergency department (ED) can cause serious complications. Available evidence on the use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) during intubation in the ED is limited. This study evalua...

    Authors: Yumi Mitsuyama, Shunichiro Nakao, Junya Shimazaki, Hiroshi Ogura and Takeshi Shimazu
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:115
  11. Identifying the reasons for the Emergency Department (ED) visit of patients with cancer would be essential for possibly decreasing the burden of ED use. The aim of our study was to analyze the distribution of ...

    Authors: Márton Koch, Csaba Varga, Viktor Soós, Lilla Prenek, Lili Porcsa, Alíz Szakáll, Gergely Bilics, Balázs Hunka, Szabolcs Bellyei, János Girán, István Kiss and Éva Pozsgai
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:114
  12. Pain is one of the most common, yet challenging problems leading to emergency department (ED) presentation, despite the availability of a wide range of pharmacological therapies. Virtual reality (VR) simulatio...

    Authors: T. Birrenbach, F. Bühlmann, A. K. Exadaktylos, W. E. Hautz, M. Müller and T. C. Sauter
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:113
  13. To evaluate how spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) affects successful extubation and prognosis in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients under mechanical ventilation.

    Authors: Wenjing Liu, Hong Guo, Jing Wang and Fang Ding
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:112
  14. The worldwide burden of stroke remains high, with increasing time-to-treatment correlated with worse outcomes. Yet stroke subtype determination, most importantly between stroke/non-stroke and ischemic/hemorrha...

    Authors: Susmita Chennareddy, Roshini Kalagara, Colton Smith, Stavros Matsoukas, Abhiraj Bhimani, John Liang, Steven Shapiro, Reade De Leacy, Maxim Mokin, Johanna T. Fifi, J Mocco and Christopher P. Kellner
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:111
  15. Numerous guidelines highlight the need for early airway management in facial trauma patients since specific fracture patterns may induce airway obstruction. However, the incidence of these hallmark injuries, i...

    Authors: Tero Puolakkainen, Miika Toivari, Tuukka Puolakka and Johanna Snäll
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:110
  16. Misdiagnosis is a major public health problem, causing increased morbidity and mortality. In the busy setting of an emergency department (ED) patients are diagnosed under difficult circumstances. As a conseque...

    Authors: Tanja Birrenbach, Michele Hoffmann, Stefanie C. Hautz, Juliane E. Kämmer, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Thomas C. Sauter, Martin Müller and Wolf E. Hautz
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:109
  17. This study, conducted in a Finnish city, examined whether decreasing emergency department (ED) services in an overcrowded primary care ED and corresponding direction to office-hours primary care would modify s...

    Authors: Marja Liedes-Kauppila, Anna M. Heikkinen, Ossi Rahkonen, Mika Lehto, Katri Mustonen, Marko Raina and Timo Kauppila
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:108
  18. The optimal prophylactic dose of heparin in patients with coronavirus-associated disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED) is debated. This study aimed to analyze different thromboprophylaxis ap...

    Authors: Claudia Marchioni, Gaetano Esposito, Mario Calci, Bruno Bais and GianLuca Colussi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:107
  19. Clinically occult cervical spine (CS) injuries are well described in blunt trauma, however delay in identifying these injuries and clearing the CS can result in morbidity. Our study examines the ground level f...

    Authors: John Culhane, Alan Parr and Philippe Mercier
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:106
  20. With more emergency visits, there is increasing pressure to provide emergency medical services globally and locally. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the disease spectrum...

    Authors: Qihui Liu, Ranran Xin, Yibo Zhao, Muming Yu, Chunjie Jin, Songtao Shou, Yanfen Chai and Heng Jin
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:105
  21. Zinc phosphide (ZnP) is a dark gray crystalline compound used as a rodenticide against rodents such as mice. ZnP poisoning may be accidental or suicidal. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical m...

    Authors: Seyed Khosro Ghasempouri, Zakaria Zakariaei, Seyed Mohammad Hoseininejad, Fatemeh Chinian, Mostafa Soleymanii, Seyedeh Masoumeh Pashaei and Mahdieh Sadeghi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:104
  22. Against the backdrop of emergency department (ED) overcrowding, patients’ potential redirection to outpatient care structures is a subject of current political debate in Germany. It was suggested in this conte...

    Authors: Sarah Oslislo, Lisa Kümpel, Rebecca Resendiz Cantu, Christoph Heintze, Martin Möckel and Felix Holzinger
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:103
  23. The prehospital emergency system in Norway involves out-of-hours (OOH) services with on-call physicians. Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) are used in cases of severe illness or trauma that require r...

    Authors: Dag Ståle Nystøyl, Øyvind Østerås, Steinar Hunskaar and Erik Zakariassen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:102
  24. We evaluated the accuracy of the prehospital Field Triage Decision Scheme, which has recently been applied in the Korean trauma system, and the factors associated with severe injury and prognosis at a regional...

    Authors: Byung Hee Kang, Kyoungwon Jung, Sora Kim, So Hyun Youn, Seo Young Song, Yo Huh and Hyuk-Jae Chang
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:101
  25. The ambulance service is facing an increased number of calls and ambulance assignments. Between 12 and 42% of all assignments result in non-conveyance to the Accident and Emergency Department. However, there i...

    Authors: Glenn Larsson, Alma Dagerhem, Jonas Wihlborg and Andreas Rantala
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:100
  26. Emergency Department (ED) boarding is related to in-hospital patients' discharge since no beds will be available for receiving ED patients if there is a delay for patients in the yard leaving the hospital. New...

    Authors: Diego Marques Moroço and Antonio Pazin-Filho
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:99
  27. Appropriate and timely administration of intravenous fluids to patients with sepsis-induced hypotension is one of the mainstays of sepsis management in the emergency department (ED), however, fluid resuscitati...

    Authors: Gladis Kabil, Steven A. Frost, Stephen McNally, Deborah Hatcher, Aldo Saavedra, Carl J. E. Suster, Michelle Moscova and Amith Shetty
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:98
  28. Pre-hospital emergency medicine (PHEM) personnel are at risk of developing psychological disorders during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate depression, anxiety, and stress levels of the Ir...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Sabbaghi, Kheizaran Miri, Reza Kahi and Mohammad Namazi Nia
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:97
  29. Pain is a highly complex sensory and emotional experience. When a child suffers acute pain through illness or injury, they are often transported to hospital by ambulance. Pre-hospital pain management in childr...

    Authors: Gregory Adam Whitley, Pippa Hemingway, Graham Richard Law and Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:96
  30. There are potential health gains such as reducing early deaths, years spent in ill-health and costs to society and the health and care system by encouraging NHS staff to use encounters with patients to help in...

    Authors: B. Schofield, U. Rolfe, S. McClean, R. Hoskins, S. Voss and J. Benger
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:95
  31. There is limited evidence regarding factors associated with mortality in septic patients receiving etomidate. This study aimed to determine independent pre-intubation factors predicting 28-day mortality in sep...

    Authors: Wasin Pansiritanachot, Onlak Ruangsomboon, Chok Limsuwat and Tipa Chakorn
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:94
  32. Nearly 90% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are witnessed, yet only 2.3% received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine retention of knowledg...

    Authors: Uzma Rahim Khan, Umerdad Khudadad, Noor Baig, Fareed Ahmed, Ahmed Raheem, Butool Hisam, Nadeem Ullah Khan, Marcus Ong Eng Hock and Junaid Abdul Razzak
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:93
  33. Patients who call for emergency medical services (EMS) due to abdominal pain suffer from a broad spectrum of diseases, some of which are time sensitive. As a result of the introduction of the concept of ‘optim...

    Authors: Glenn Larsson, Peter Hansson, Emelie Olsson, Johan Herlitz and Magnus Andersson Hagiwara
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:92
  34. There is paucity of literature on why and how patients are intubated, and by whom, in Irish Emergency Departments (EDs). The aim of this pilot study was to characterise emergency airway management (EAM) of cri...

    Authors: Etimbuk Umana, James Foley, Irene Grossi, Conor Deasy and Francis O’Keeffe
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:91
  35. Numerous trauma scoring systems have been developed in an attempt to accurately and efficiently predict the prognosis of emergent trauma cases. However, it has been questioned as to whether the accuracy and pr...

    Authors: Zeinab Mohammed, Yaseen Saleh, Eman Mohammed AbdelSalam, Norhan B. B. Mohammed, Emad El-Bana and Jon Mark Hirshon
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:90
  36. The emergency medical services (EMS) have undergone dramatic changes during the past few decades. Increased utilisation, changes in care-seeking behaviour and competence among EMS clinicians have given rise to...

    Authors: Carl Magnusson, Magnus Andersson Hagiwara, Gabriella Norberg-Boysen, Wivica Kauppi, Johan Herlitz, Christer Axelsson, Niclas Packendorff, Glenn Larsson and Kristoffer Wibring
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:89
  37. Overcrowding in emergency departments (ED) is a critical problem worldwide, and streaming can alleviate crowding to improve patient flows. Among triage scales, patients labeled as “triage level 3” or “urgent” ...

    Authors: Yu-Hsin Chang, Hong-Mo Shih, Jia-En Wu, Fen-Wei Huang, Wei-Kung Chen, Dar-Min Chen, Yu-Ting Chung and Charles C. N. Wang
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:88
  38. Septic shock (SS) hyperdynamic phase is characterized by tachycardia and low-blood pressure reflecting the relative hypovolemia. Shock index (SI), the ratio between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, is a...

    Authors: Romain Jouffroy, Basile Gilbert, Léa Thomas, Emmanuel Bloch-Laine, Patrick Ecollan, Josiane Boularan, Vincent Bounes, Benoit Vivien and Papa-Ngalgou Gueye
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:87
  39. Owing to societal ageing, the number of older individuals visiting emergency departments (EDs) has increased in recent years. For this patient population, accurate triage systems are required. This retrospecti...

    Authors: Cheng-Yu Chien, Chung-Hsien Chaou, Chung-Cheng Yeh, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Shi-Ying Gao and Chip-Jin Ng
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:86
  40. The city of Freiburg has been among the most affected regions by the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. In out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care, all parts of the rescue system were exposed to profound infrast...

    Authors: Domagoj Damjanovic, Jan-Steffen Pooth, Rebecca Steger, Martin Boeker, Michael Steger, Julian Ganter, Tobias Hack, Klemens Baldas, Paul Marc Biever, Daniel Schmitz, Hans-Jörg Busch, Michael Patrick Müller, Georg Trummer and Bonaventura Schmid
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:85
  41. The association between spontaneous initial body temperature on hospital arrival and neurological outcomes has not been sufficiently studied in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Authors: Satoshi Yoshimura, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Taro Irisawa, Tomoki Yamada, Kazuhisa Yoshiya, Changhwi Park, Tetsuro Nishimura, Takuya Ishibe, Yoshiki Yagi, Masafumi Kishimoto, Sung-Ho Kim, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Taku Sogabe, Takaya Morooka, Haruko Sakamoto, Keitaro Suzuki…
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:84
  42. Non-technical skills (NTS) are important for the proper functioning of emergency medical ambulance crews but have hardly been researched in the conditions of clinical pre-hospital care.

    Authors: David Peran, Roman Sykora, Jana Vidunova, Ivana Krsova, Jaroslav Pekara, Metodej Renza, Nikola Brizgalova and Patrik Ch. Cmorej
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:83
  43. The resuscitation guidelines provided for the COVID-19 pandemic strongly recommended wearing personal protective equipment. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of chest compressio...

    Authors: Bálint Bánfai, János Musch, József Betlehem, Emese Sánta, Balázs Horváth, Dániel Németh and Henrietta Bánfai-Csonka
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:82
  44. The number of ambulance assignments and the influx of patients to the emergency departments (EDs) in Sweden have increased in recent years. This is one reason the protocol for prehospital emergency care was de...

    Authors: Helena Johansson, Kristin Lundgren and Magnus Andersson Hagiwara
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:79
  45. Workplace violence by patients and bystanders against health care workers, is a major problem, for workers, organizations, patients, and society. It is estimated to affect up to 95% of health care workers. Eme...

    Authors: Evelien Spelten, Julia van Vuuren, Peter O’Meara, Brodie Thomas, Mathieu Grenier, Richard Ferron, Jennie Helmer and Gina Agarwal
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:78
  46. The sign of contrast agent pooling (C.A.P.) in dependent part of the venous system were reported in some case reports, which happened in the patients before sudden cardiac arrest. Until now, there is no solid ...

    Authors: Yu-Hsuan Lee, Jiashan Chen, Po-An Chen, Jen-Tang Sun, Bo-Hwi Kang, Sheng-En Chu, Chieh-Min Fan, Kuang-Chau Tsai and Shyh-Shyong Sim
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:77
  47. The 2020 American Heart Association guidelines recommend the use of a feedback device during chest compressions (CCs). However, these devices are only placed visually by medical personnel on the lower half of ...

    Authors: Yasuaki Koyama, Tasuku Matsuyama, Takako Kaino, Tetsuya Hoshino, Junzo Nakao, Nobutake Shimojo and Yoshiaki Inoue
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:76
  48. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in peer-reviewed journals on HIV screening programs conducted in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in the United States (US) with the objective of des...

    Authors: Lynn Bi, Rachel E. Solnick and Roland C. Merchant
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:75
  49. Calls for emergency medical assistance at the scene of a motor vehicle crash (MVC) substantially contribute to the demand on ambulance services. Triage by emergency medical dispatch systems is therefore import...

    Authors: Ellen Ceklic, Hideo Tohira, Stephen Ball, Elizabeth Brown, Deon Brink, Paul Bailey, Rudolph Brits and Judith Finn
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:74

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