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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and test results for all enrolled subjects, stratified by criterion standard diagnosis of Primary versus non-Primary heart failure. Data are given as means and standard deviations or as frequencies and percents.

From: Clinical characteristics of emergency department heart failure patients initially diagnosed as non-heart failure

  Non-Primary HF N = 266 (60.6%) Primary HF N = 173 (39.4%) Total N = 439 p-value
Age 58.5 (15.4) 66.7 (15.7) 61.6 (16.0) <0.001
Male 116 (43.6) 93 (53.8) 209 (47.6)  
Female 150 (56.4) 80 (46.2) 230 (52.4) 0.040
Non-white 130 (48.9) 93 (53.8) 223 (50.8)  
White 136 (51.1) 80 (46.2) 216 (49.2) 0.330
History of CHF 74 (27.8) 146 (84.4) 220 (50.1) <0.001
History of CAD 76 (28.6) 80 (46.2) 156 (35.5) <0.001
History of hypertension 144 (54.1) 132 (76.3) 276 (62.9) <0.001
History of valvular heart disease 48 (18.0) 82 (47.4) 130 (29.6) <0.001
History of COPD 40 (15.0) 28 (16.2) 68 (15.5) 0.788
CHF admission in last 6 months 19 (7.1) 45 (26.2) 64 (14.6) <0.001
Prior EF <55% 9 (18.0) 33 (60.0) 42 (40.0) <0.001
Median BNP level* 62.7 (5–5000) 657 (5–5000) 278 (5–5000) <0.001
  1. *Median and range of BNP levels.