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  1. The authors have retracted this case report [1] because the head of the snake shown in Figure 1 and described as being that of a viper (Echis occellatus) is identical to the head of a snake shown in Figure 1 of a...

    Authors: Agnès Esiéné, Paul Owono Etoundi, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Arlette Junette Mbengono Metogo and Jacqueline Ze Minkande

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:23

    Content type: Retraction Note

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:26

  2. Videolaryngoscopy (VL) has become a popular method of intubation (ETI). Although VL may facilitate ETI in less-experienced rescuers there are limited data available concerning ETI performed by paramedics durin...

    Authors: Joachim Risse, Christian Volberg, Thomas Kratz, Birgit Plöger, Andreas Jerrentrup, Dirk Pabst and Clemens Kill

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:22

    Content type: Research article

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  3. An overwhelming proportion of road traffic deaths and injuries in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) occur in prehospital environments. Lay first responders such as police officers play an important role...

    Authors: Menti L. Ndile, Gift G. Lukumay, Karin Bolenius, Anne H. Outwater, Britt-Inger Saveman and Susann Backteman-Erlanson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:21

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Patients in need of acute health care do not always contact the most suitable health care service provider. Contacting out-of-hours primary care for an urgent problem may delay care, whereas contacting emergen...

    Authors: Linda Huibers, Anders H. Carlsen, Grete Moth, Helle C. Christensen, Ingunn S. Riddervold and Morten B. Christensen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:20

    Content type: Research article

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  5. This article is a report of designing a rapid and effective guide for paramedics who take care of patients in a pre-hospital setting to answer developing demands.

    Authors: Fatemeh Shirzad, Fatemeh Hadi, Seyede Salehe Mortazavi, Maryam Biglari, Hassan Noori Sari, Zeinab Mohammadi, Mehrdad Kazemzade Atoofi and Seyed Vahid Shariat

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Point of care serum lactate measurement is emerging as an adjunct to prehospital clinical assessment and has the potential to guide triage and advanced treatment decision-making. In this study we aimed to asse...

    Authors: E. ter Avest, J. Griggs, J. Wijesuriya, M. Q. Russell and R. M. Lyon

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:18

    Content type: Research article

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  7. There are many high-volume trauma centers in limited resource environments where a thorough clinical examination of patients may contribute to a more economical, accurate, and widely applicable method of deter...

    Authors: Andrés Isaza-Restrepo, Julián Andrés Quintero-Contreras, Jorge Escobar-DiazGranados and Ángela María Ruiz-Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:17

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Previous work has indicated that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) within 60 days of trauma exposure, can reliably produce likelihood esti...

    Authors: Willem F. van der Mei, Anna C. Barbano, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Richard A. Bryant, Douglas L. Delahanty, Terri A. deRoon-Cassini, Betty S. Lai, Sarah R. Lowe, Yutaka J. Matsuoka, Miranda Olff, Wei Qi, Ulrich Schnyder, Soraya Seedat, Ronald C. Kessler, Karestan C. Koenen and Arieh Y. Shalev

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:16

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Early prognostication in trauma patients is challenging, but particularly important. We wanted to explore the ability of copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of arginine vasopressin, to identify major trauma, def...

    Authors: Fulvio Salvo, Francesco Luppi, Davide M. Lucchesi, Simone Canovi, Stefano Franchini, Alessandra Polese, Francesca Santi, Laura Trabucco, Tommaso Fasano and Anna Maria Ferrari

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:14

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Oxygen (O2) treatment has been a cornerstone in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction. Recent studies, however, state that supplemental O2 therapy may have no effect or harmful effects in these pat...

    Authors: Arash Mokhtari, Mahin Akbarzadeh, David Sparv, Pallonji Bhiladvala, Håkan Arheden, David Erlinge and Ardavan Khoshnood

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:12

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The health effects of war and armed conflict on casualties and mental health of those directly exposed has been well described, but few studies have explored the indirect health effects of violent events. This...

    Authors: Carla Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Eman Sharara, Ghada El-Eid and Eveline A. Hitti

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:10

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The original article [1] contains an incorrect affiliation.

    Authors: Zohair A. Al Aseri, M. Owais Suriya, Hosam A. Hassan, Mujtaba Hasan, Shaffi Ahmed Sheikh, Adel Al Tamimi, Mashhoor Alshathri and Najeeb Khalid

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:9

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2015 15:28

  13. Crowding in the emergency department (ED) is a safety concern, and pathways to bypass the ED have been introduced to reduce the time to definitive care. Conversely, a number of low-acuity patients in the ED co...

    Authors: Carl Magnusson, Johan Herlitz and Christer Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:7

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Paramedics are increasingly required to make complex decisions as to whether they should convey a patient to hospital or manage their condition at the scene. Dementia can be a significant barrier to the assess...

    Authors: Sarah Voss, Janet Brandling, Katherine Pollard, Hazel Taylor, Sarah Black, Marina Buswell, Richard Cheston, Sarah Cullum, Theresa Foster, Kim Kirby, Larissa Prothero, Sarah Purdy, Chris Solway and Jonathan Benger

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:6

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is used to secure the airway of stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial evidence exists to support the use of paramedic RSI for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but cannot nec...

    Authors: Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Malcolm Boyle, Stephen Bernard and Karen Smith

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. The original article [1] contained a misspelling in first author, Baruch Berzon’s name which has since been corrected.

    Authors: Baruch Berzon, Michael Gleenberg, Joseph Offenbacher and Debra West

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:4

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:70

  17. Within each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified key emergency care (EC) interventions that, if implemented effectively, could ensure that the SDG tar...

    Authors: Martina Anto-Ocrah, Jeremy Cushman, Mechelle Sanders and Timothy De Ver Dye

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:3

    Content type: Debate

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  18. Fever is a common symptom when patients present to Emergency Departments. It is unclear if the febrile response of bacteremic hemodialysis-dependent patients differs from bacteremic patients not receiving hemo...

    Authors: Sarah L. Weatherall, Alison B. Chambers and Leonard A. Mermel

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:2

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Dispatch services (DS’s) form an integral part of emergency medical service (EMS) systems. The role of a dispatcher has also evolved into a crucial link in patient care delivery, particularly in dispatcher ass...

    Authors: Shawn Chieh Loong Lee, Desmond Renhao Mao, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Jirapong Supasaovapak, Faith Joan Gaerlan, Do Ngoc Son, Boon Yang Chia, Sang Do Shin, Chih-Hao Lin, G. V. Ramana Rao, Takahiro Hara and Marcus Eng Hock Ong

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:1

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Previous systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for frequent presenters to the Emergency Department (ED) but not the costs and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

    Authors: Viola Korczak, Janani Shanthosh, Stephen Jan, Michael Dinh and Thomas Lung

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:83

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Emergency ambulance services are integral to providing a service for those with unplanned urgent and life-threatening health conditions. However, high use of the service by a small minority of patients is a co...

    Authors: Helen A. Snooks, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Robert Cole, Adrian Edwards, Bethan Mair Edwards, Bridie A. Evans, Theresa Foster, Rachael T. Fothergill, Carol P. Gripper, Chelsey Hampton, Ann John, Robin Petterson, Alison Porter, Andy Rosser and Jason Scott

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:82

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The Irish ambulance services have traditionally transported all patients following an emergency (112/999) call, regardless of acuity, to an emergency department (ED). A proposal to introduce Treat and Referral...

    Authors: Brian Power, Gerard Bury and John Ryan

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:81

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) is a validated clinical analytics tool designed to estimate the probability of in-patient admission based on Emergency Department triage characteristics.

    Authors: Anja Ebker-White, Kendall J. Bein, Saartje Berendsen Russell and Michael M. Dinh

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Nigeria is ranked second highest in the rate of road accidents and other emergencies (Deaths, disabilities) among 193 countries of the world. There is therefore the need for analyzing Emergency Medical Rescue ...

    Authors: Peter Asaga Mac, Axel Kroeger and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Diagnostic error occurs more frequently in the emergency department than in regular in-patient hospital care. We sought to characterise the nature of reported diagnostic error in hospital emergency departments...

    Authors: Faris Hussain, Alison Cooper, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Liam Donaldson, Peter Hibbert, Thomas Hughes and Adrian Edwards

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Sepsis is a potential life threatening dysregulated immune response to an infection, which can result in multi-organ failure and death. Unfortunately, good prognostic markers are lacking in patients with suspe...

    Authors: Jan Willem Uffen, Patrick Oomen, Marieke de Regt, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert and Karin Kaasjager

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:76

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major challenge for physicians to predict and manage. Proenkephalin A 119–159 (penKid) is a reliable surrogate marker for the more unstable endogenous opioid ...

    Authors: Mari Rosenqvist, Kevin Bronton, Oliver Hartmann, Andreas Bergmann, Joachim Struck and Olle Melander

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. The rapid identification of deterioration in the pediatric population is complex, particularly in the emergency department (ED). A comprehensive multi-faceted Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) might maximi...

    Authors: Theresa McElroy, Erik N. Swartz, Kasra Hassani, Sina Waibel, Yasmin Tuff, Catherine Marshall, Richard Chan, David Wensley and Maureen O’Donnell

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:74

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Maintaining highly effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be particularly difficult when artificial ventilation using a bag-valve-mask device, combined with chest compression have to be carried out ...

    Authors: Michał Ćwiertnia, Marek Kawecki, Tomasz Ilczak, Monika Mikulska, Mieczysław Dutka and Rafał Bobiński

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:73

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Academic and non-academic emergency departments (EDs) are regularly compared in clinical operations benchmarking despite suggestion that the two groups may differ in their clinical operations characteristics. ...

    Authors: Martin A. Reznek, Sean S. Michael, Cathi A. Harbertson, James J. Scheulen and James J. Augustine

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:72

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The diagnosis of pediatric pancreatitis has been increasing over the last 15 years but the etiology of this is uncertain. The population of pre-adolescent patients with pancreatitis in the emergency department...

    Authors: Melanie M. Randall, Sarah McDaniels, Kristina Kyle, Meina Michael, Julia Giacopuzzi and Lance A. Brown

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:71

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Occult hemorrhagic shock secondary to uterine rupture represents a true obstetric emergency and can result in significant morbidity and mortality for both the patient and the fetus. Multiparity and prior cesar...

    Authors: Baruch Berzon, Michael Gleenberg, Joseph Offenbacher and Debra West

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:70

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2020 20:4

  33. The growing demand for elderly care often exceeds the ability of emergency department (ED) services to provide quality of care within reasonable time. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the eff...

    Authors: Gijs Hesselink, Özcan Sir and Yvonne Schoon

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:69

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The number of Global Emergency Medicine (GEM) Fellowship training programs are increasing worldwide. Despite the increasing number of GEM fellowships, there is not an agreed upon approach for assessment of GEM...

    Authors: Haiko Kurt Jahn, James Kwan, Gerard O’Reilly, Heike Geduld, Katherine Douglass, Andrea Tenner, Lee Wallis, Janis Tupesis and Hani O. Mowafi

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:68

    Content type: Debate

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  35. Overcrowding in emergency departments (ED) is a major concern worldwide. To answer increasing health care demands, new models of care including advanced practice physiotherapists (APP) have been implemented in...

    Authors: E. Matifat, K. Perreault, J.-S. Roy, A. Aiken, E. Gagnon, M. Mequignon, V. Lowry, S. Décary, B. Hamelin, M. Ambrosio, N. Farley, D. Pelletier, L. Carlesso and F. Desmeules

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:67

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Majority burn mortality prognostic scores were developed and validated in western populations. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and identify possible risk factors which may be used to predic...

    Authors: Henry Tan Chor Lip, Mohamad Azim Md. Idris, Farrah-Hani Imran, Tuan Nur’ Azmah, Tan Jih Huei and Mathew Thomas

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The Japan Coma Scale (JCS) score has been widely used to assess patients’ consciousness level in Japan. JCS scores are divided into four main categories: alert (0) and one-, two-, and three-digit codes based o...

    Authors: Tetsuya Yumoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takashi Yorifuji, Toshiyuki Aokage, Noritomo Fujisaki and Atsunori Nakao

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:65

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Dispatched citizen responders are increasingly involved in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation which can lead to severe stress. It is unknown which psychological assessment tools are most appro...

    Authors: Astrid Rolin Kragh, Fredrik Folke, Linn Andelius, Emma Slebsager Ries, Rasmus Vedby Rasmussen and Carolina Malta Hansen

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:64

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To test if the 5-item compassion measure (a tool previously validated in the outpatient setting to measure patient assessment of clinician compassion) is a valid and reliable tool to quantify a distinct constr...

    Authors: Praveen Sabapathi, Michael B. Roberts, Brian M. Fuller, Michael A. Puskarich, Christopher W. Jones, J. Hope Kilgannon, Valerie Braz, Christina Creel-Bulos, Nathaniel Scott, Kristina L. Tester, Anthony Mazzarelli, Stephen Trzeciak and Brian W. Roberts

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:63

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding adversely affects patients’ health, accessibility, and quality of healthcare systems for communities. Several studies have addressed this issue. This study aimed to condu...

    Authors: Hamid Reza Rasouli, Ali Aliakbar Esfahani and Mohsen Abbasi Farajzadeh

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:62

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Hospitals must improve patient safety and quality continuously. Clinical quality registries can drive such improvement. Trauma registries code injuries according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and bench...

    Authors: Anna Bågenholm, Ina Lundberg, Bjørn Straume, Rune Sundset, Kristian Bartnes, Tor Ingebrigtsen and Trond Dehli

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:61

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In France, patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are usually transferred from remote hospitals to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centres in mobile intensive care units (MICUs) with on-board me...

    Authors: Sebastien Cassan, Mihaela Rata, Claire Vallenet, Philippe Fromage, Frederic Champly, Patrick Broin, Guillaume Peribois, Valerie Sierra, Cedric Lutz, Lionel Mangin, Dominique Savary, François-Xavier Ageron and Loic Belle

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:60

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In disaster situations, the elderly are considered to be a particularly vulnerable population. Preparedness is the key to reduce post-disaster damage. There is limited research in middle-income countries on ho...

    Authors: Jiraporn Sri-on, Alissara Vanichkulbodee, Natchapon Sinsuwan, Rapeeporn Rojsaengroeng, Anucha Kamsom and Shan Woo Liu

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:58

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. The emergency department (ED) sensitive hospital standardized mortality ratio (ED-HSMR) measures risk-adjusted mortality for patients admitted to hospital with conditions for which ED care may improve health o...

    Authors: Simon Berthelot, Eddy S. Lang, Hude Quan and Henry T. Stelfox

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. In 2010, the CRASH-2 study, a multicentre randomized control trial on the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to trauma patients with suspe...

    Authors: Alessandro Jachetti, Rose Berly Massénat, Nathalie Edema, Sophia C. Woolley, Guido Benedetti, Rafael Van Den Bergh and Miguel Trelles

    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2019 19:56

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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