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  1. The shock index (SI) and its derivatives have been shown to predict mortality in severely injured patients, both in pre-hospital and in-hospital settings. However, the impact of the time of measurement on the ...

    Authors: Mikael Laaksonen, Johannes Björkman, Timo Iirola, Lasse Raatiniemi and Jouni Nurmi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:189
  2. Vaso–occlusive crises (VOCs) are acute and common painful complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), and are the main reason behind the frequent emergency department visits among SCD patients. Hydroxyurea (HU)...

    Authors: Sahar Abdullah Alkhalifah, Miteb Alanazi, Majed Ali Almasaoud, Hazim Saeed Al-Malki, Faisal Mohammed Al-Murdhi, Mohammed Saad Al-hazzaa, Suliaman Musaed Al-Mufarrij, Mohammed Ali Albabtain, Abdulrahman Abdullah Alshiakh and Yazed AlRuthia
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:188
  3. There is limited research on individual patient characteristics, alone or in combination, that contribute to the higher levels of mortality in post-transfer patients. The purpose of this work is to identify si...

    Authors: Andrew P. Reimer, Nicholas K. Schiltz and Siran M. Koroukian
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:187
  4. Venous Thromboembolic disease (VTE) poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians in acute care. Over reliance on reference standard investigations can lead to over treatment and potential harm.

    Authors: Liam Barrett, Tom Jones and Daniel Horner
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:186
  5. Patients presenting with infection to the ambulance are common, but risk factors for poor outcome are not known. The primary aim of the current study was to study the association between variables measured in ...

    Authors: Ulrika Margareta Wallgren, Hans Järnbert-Pettersson, Jan Sjölin and Lisa Kurland
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:185
  6. Head injury (HI) in older adults due to low-energy falls result in a substantial number of emergency department (ED) attendances. However, mortality associated with minor HI is very low. Reducing conveyance to...

    Authors: Helen Nicholson, Sarah Voss, Sarah Black, Hazel Taylor, David Williams and Jonathan Benger
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:184
  7. Prolonged emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) in critically ill patients leads to increased mortality. This nationwide study investigated patient and hospital characteristics associated with prolonged ...

    Authors: Kyung-Shin Lee, Hye Sook Min, Jae Young Moon, Daesung Lim, Younghwan Kim, Eunsil Ko, You Sun Kim, Joohae Kim, Jeehye Lee and Ho Kyung Sung
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:183
  8. CD8+ T cells are important for protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Excessive amounts of antigen and/or inflammatory signals often lead to the gradual deterioration of CD8+ T cell function, a stat...

    Authors: Lei Yan, Yumei Chen, Yi Han and Chaoyang Tong
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:182
  9. Overcrowding in the Emergency Department (ED) is one of the major issues that must be addressed in order to improve the services provided in emergency circumstances and to optimize their quality. As a result, ...

    Authors: Ylenia Colella, Danilo Di Laura, Anna Borrelli, Maria Triassi, Francesco Amato and Giovanni Improta
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:181
  10. Hyperkalemia can lead to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Ten units of intravenous (IV) regular insulin with 25 g of glucose is the mainstay for treating hyperkalemia. However, the most important complication of thi...

    Authors: Weerapriya Kijprasert, Nilanut Tarudeeyathaworn, Chananthita Loketkrawee, Thidarat Pimpaporn, Pornpiyapat Pattarasettaseranee and Theerapon Tangsuwanaruk
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:179
  11. A shortage of donor organs amid high demand for transplantable organs is a worldwide problem, and an increase in organ donation would be welcomed by the global healthcare system. Patients with brain death (BD)...

    Authors: Yuki Itagaki, Mineji Hayakawa, Kunihiko Maekawa, Akira Kodate, Koyo Moriki, Yuki Takahashi and Hisako Sageshima
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:177
  12. The collateral damage of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious concern in the Emergency Medicine (EM) community, specifically in relation to delayed care increasing morbidity and mortality in attendances unrelated to COVID-...

    Authors: Niamh M. Cummins, Carrie Garavan, Louise A. Barry, Collette Devlin, Gillian Corey, Fergal Cummins, Damien Ryan, Gerard McCarthy and Rose Galvin
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:176
  13. Emergency department (ED) nurses and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) find themselves performing triage under time pressure and with limited information. Identifying an effective triage decision-making pro...

    Authors: Aghil Habibi Soola, Saeid Mehri and Islam Azizpour
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:174
  14. Pre-clinical psychiatric emergencies are generally treated by emergency medical staff. The subsequent clinical treatment is often conditioned by interaction problems between emergency medical staff and psychia...

    Authors: Benedikt Schick, Benjamin Mayer, Markus Jäger, Bettina Jungwirth, Eberhard Barth, Martin Eble, Christoph Sponholz, Claus-Martin Muth and Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:173
  15. Older adults living with frailty who require treatment in hospitals are increasingly seen in the Emergency Departments (EDs). One quick and simple frailty assessment tool—the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)—has b...

    Authors: Abdullah Alshibani, Tim Coats, Laia Maynou, Fiona Lecky, Jay Banerjee and Simon Conroy
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:171
  16. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. During the pandemic, to contain the spread of COVID-19, there were some integral changes in the medical processes based on the pandemic prevention ...

    Authors: Xuan Cai, Jingtao Bi, Zhixue Zheng and Yaqi Liu
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:170
  17. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a critical complication of acute myocardial infarction, especially ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study identified the risk factors for SCA in patients ...

    Authors: Chang-Hung Chu, Hong-Mo Shih, Shao-Hua Yu, Shih-Sheng Chang, Ji-Syuan Sie, Fen-Wei Huang and Tai-Yi Hsu
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:169
  18. Since hospitals play an important role in dealing with disaster victims, this study was conducted to audit the functional preparedness of the selected military hospital in response to incidents and disasters.

    Authors: Esmail Heidaranlu, Mehdi Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi Salaree, Forogh Sarhangi, Yaser Saeed and Asghar Tavan
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:168
  19. Understanding the changes in characteristics of patients who visited trauma centres during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is important to facilitate aneffective response. This retrospective s...

    Authors: Sooyeon Kang, Ji Eun Park, Ji Wool Ko, Myoung Jun Kim, Young Un Choi, Hongjin Shim, Keum Seok Bae and Kwangmin Kim
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:167
  20. Oesophageal foreign bodies (EFBs) are a common emergency issue in paediatrics, and few studies have revealed its clinical features and treatment methods. We conducted this retrospective study to provide our 10...

    Authors: Guo Xu, Yong-chao Chen, Jing Chen, De-sheng Jia, Ze-bin Wu and Lan Li
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:166
  21. Emergency medical service (EMS) providers are the first medical professionals to make contact with patients in an emergency. However, the frequency of care by EMS providers for severely injured children is lim...

    Authors: Mafumi Shinohara, Takashi Muguruma, Chiaki Toida, Masayasu Gakumazawa, Takeru Abe and Ichiro Takeuchi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:165
  22. Urban mobility has drastically evolved over the last decade and micromobility rapidly became an expanding segment of contemporary daily transportation routines. E-scooter riders and bicyclists may share simila...

    Authors: Axel Benhamed, Amaury Gossiome, Amina Ndiaye and Karim Tazarourte
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:164
  23. Although the timely involvement of trauma surgeons is widely accepted as standard care in a trauma center, there is an ongoing debate regarding the value of an on-site attending trauma surgeon compared to an o...

    Authors: Oscar E. C. van Maarseveen, Wietske H. W. Ham and Loek P. H. Leenen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:163
  24. Non-technical errors, such as insufficient communication or leadership, are a major cause of medical failures during trauma resuscitation. Research on staffing variation among trauma teams on teamwork is still...

    Authors: Oscar E. C. van Maarseveen, Roel L. N. Huijsmans, Luke P. H. Leenen and Wietske H. W. Ham
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:161
  25. The outcome of road traffic injury (RTI) is determined by duration of prehospital time, patient’s demographics, and the type of injury and its mechanism. During the emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital ...

    Authors: Shingo Ito, Hideki Asai, Yasuyuki Kawai, Shunji Suto, Sachiko Ohta and Hidetada Fukushima
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:160
  26. Emergency department (ED) High users (HU), defined as having more than ten visits to the ED per year, are a small group of patients that use a significant proportion of ED resources. The High Users Resolution ...

    Authors: Simão Gonçalves, Francisco von Hafe, Flávio Martins, Carla Menino, Maria José Guimarães, Andreia Mesquita, Susana Sampaio and Ana Rita Londral
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:159
  27. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to trauma is rare, and survival in this group is infrequent. Over the last decades, several new procedures have been implemented to increase survival, and a “Special c...

    Authors: Stephan Seewald, Jan Wnent, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Ingvild Tjelmeland, Matthias Fischer, Andreas Bohn, Bertil Bouillon, Holger Maurer and Rolf Lefering
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:158
  28. Authors: Takahiro Miyoshi, Hideki Endo, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Koki Shimada, Hiraku Kumamaru, Nao Ichihara, Yoshiki Miyachi and Hiroaki Miyata
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:157

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:120

  29. Reports regarding transportation methods of severely critical patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) or paediatric ICU (PICU) are limited. In an attempt to address this research gap, this study aime...

    Authors: Tadashi Ishihara, Ken Okamoto and Hiroshi Tanaka
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:156
  30. It is not known whether emergency departments (EDs) with primary care services influence demand for non-urgent care (‘provider-induced demand’). We proposed that distinct primary care services in EDs encourage...

    Authors: I. J. McFadzean, M. Edwards, F. Davies, A. Cooper, D. Price, A. Carson-Stevens, J. Dale, T. Hughes, A. Porter, B. Harrington, B. Evans, N. Siriwardena, P. Anderson and A. Edwards
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:155
  31. Terrorist attacks are one of the human problems that affect many countries, leaving behind a huge toll of disabilities and deaths. The aim of this study was to use a mixed-method analysis to design and validat...

    Authors: Sadegh Miraki, Yasamin Molavi-Taleghani, Mohammadreza Amiresmaeili, Mahmood Nekoei-Moghadam and Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:154
  32. Emergency medical services (EMS) are the first point of contact for most acute stroke patients. EMS call to hospital times have increased in recent years for stroke patients in the UK which is undesirable due ...

    Authors: Graham McClelland, Sarah Hepburn, Tracy Finch and Christopher I. Price
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:153
  33. Post-resuscitation debriefing (PRD) is the process of facilitated, reflective discussion, enabling team-based interpersonal feedback and identification of systems-level barriers to patient care. The importance...

    Authors: April J. Kam, Clarelle L. Gonsalves, Samantha V. Nordlund, Stephen J. Hale, Jennifer Twiss, Cynthia Cupido, Mandeep Brar and Melissa J. Parker
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:152
  34. We investigated key risk factors for hospital admission related to powered scooters, which are modes of transportation with increasing accessibility across the United States (US).

    Authors: Sergio M. Navarro, Victor R. Vakayil, Rafat H. Solaiman, Evan J. Keil, Matthew W. Cohen, Ellen J. Spartz, Christopher J. Tignanelli and James V. Harmon Jr.
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:150
  35. Maternal cardiac arrest is a rare and complex process requiring pregnancy-specific responses and techniques. The goals of this study were to (1) identify, evaluate, and determine the most current best practice...

    Authors: Andrea D. Shields, Jacqueline D. Battistelli, Laurie B. Kavanagh, Brook A. Thomson and Peter E. Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:149
  36. Diagnostic errors constitute an important medical safety problem that needs improvement, and their frequency and severity are high in emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested that diagnostic er...

    Authors: Kotaro Kunitomo, Taku Harada and Takashi Watari
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:148
  37. US emergency department (ED) visits for burns and factors associated with inter-facility transfer are unknown and described in this manuscript.

    Authors: Christopher S. Evans, Kimberly Hart, Wesley H. Self, Sayeh Nikpay, Callie M. Thompson and Michael J. Ward
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:147
  38. Emergency medical dispatchers typically use the dispatch code for suspected stroke when the caller brings up one or more symptoms from the face-arm-speech triad. Paramedics and emergency department physicians ...

    Authors: Pauli Vuorinen, Joonas Kiili, Essi Alanko, Heini Huhtala, Jyrki Ollikainen, Piritta Setälä and Sanna Hoppu
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:146
  39. Physician Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment forms (POLST) exist in some format in all 50 states. The objective of this study is to determine paramedic interpretation and application of the California POLST f...

    Authors: Amelia M. Breyre, Karl A. Sporer, Glen Davenport, Eric Isaacs and Nicolaus W. Glomb
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:145
  40. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is widespread in hospitals in many countries, causing severe consequences to patient outcomes, staff work and the system, with an overall increase in costs. Therefore, he...

    Authors: Giovanni Improta, Massimo Majolo, Eliana Raiola, Giuseppe Russo, Giuseppe Longo and Maria Triassi
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:143
  41. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition presented in emergency departments globally. It is also the most common cause of abdominal pain treated surgically, with a lifetime risk of 7%. Recent s...

    Authors: Bassant Sayed Moussa, Mohamed Amin Ali, Dina AbdulRahman Ramadan Mohamed and Amal Mohamed El Shahhat
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:142
  42. Road traffic injuries (RTI) are the leading cause of death worldwide in children over 5 and adults aged 18–29. Nonfatal RTIs result in 20–50 million annual injuries. In Bangladesh, a new mechanism of RTI has e...

    Authors: Anna Tupetz, Eleanor Strand, Kazi Imdadul Hoque, Mohsina Sultana, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Catherine Staton and Michel D. Landry
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:141
  43. Authors: Soudani Marghli, Chafiaa Bouhamed, Amira Sghaier, Nabil Chebbi, Insaf Dlala, Samia Bettout, Achref Belkacem, Sarra Kbaier, Nahla Jerbi and Abdelouahab Bellou
    Citation: BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:140

    The original article was published in BMC Emergency Medicine 2022 22:134

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