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Table 2 Prevalence of the different substances above the cut-off limit at the time of admittance to the hospital, and percentage under the influence (comparable to a BAC of 0.05 % or higher) at the time of injury among patients who have the different substances in blood above the cut-off limit, and mean score of points at the time of injury

From: Influence of alcohol and other substances of abuse at the time of injury among patients in a Norwegian emergency department

Substance Prevalence n (%) Influenced % Mean score of points (95 % CI)
Alcohol 263 (26.4) 98.1 4.3 (4.1–4.5)
Medicinal drugs 163 (16.4) 47.2 4.3 (3.6–4.9)
 Benzodiazepines 97 (9.7) 70.1 4.6 (3.9–5.4)
  Diazepam 34 (3.4) 85.3 5.3 (4.2–6.3)
  Clonazepam 17 (1.7) 88.2 5.4 (4.5–6.5)
  Flunitrazepam 16 (1.6) 87.5 6.3 (4.6–8.0)
  Oxazepam 16 (1.6) 75.0 5.4 (3.6–7.3)
  Nitrazepam 12 (1.2) 83.3 3.5 (1.9–5.1)
  Alprazolam 7 (0.7) 100.0 6.4 (3.9–9.0)
  Zopiclone 35 (3.5) 40.0 2.4 (1.1–3.7)
  Zolpidem 6 (0.6) 100.0 4.0 (1.5–6.5)
 Opioids 44 (4.4) 40.9 4.3 (2.6–6.0)
  Codeine 34 (3.4) 23.5 1.4 (0.6–2.1)
  Morphine 11 (1.1) 81.8 6.6 (4.4–8.8)
  Methadone 6 (0.6) 40.9 8.3 (5.3-11-2)
Illicit drugs 82 (8.2) 79.3 4.75 (4.1–5.4)
 Tetrahydrocannabinol 58 (5.8) 81.0 4.3 (3.6–4.9)
aAmphetamines 18 (1.8) 88.9 5.6 (4.0–7.3)
 Cocaine 11 (1.1) 63.6 6.0 (4.5–7.5)
  1. a Amphetamine and/or methamphetamine
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