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Table 1 Eligibility criteria

From: Design and rationale of the Procalcitonin Antibiotic Consensus Trial (ProACT), a multicenter randomized trial of procalcitonin antibiotic guidance in lower respiratory tract infection

Inclusion criteria ≥ 18 years of age
A primary clinical diagnosis in the ED of acute LRTI (< 28 days duration) a
Clinician willing to consider procalcitonin in antibiotic decision making
Exclusion criteria Conditions where physicians are unlikely to withhold antibiotics
 Systemic antibiotics before ED presentation
  a. All prophylactic antibiotic regimens, or
  b. Received >1 dose within 72 h prior to ED presentation
 Current vasopressor use
 Mechanical ventilation (via endotracheal tube)
 Known severe immunosuppression b
 Accompanying non-respiratory infections
 Known lung abscess or empyema
Conditions where PCT can be >0.25 μg/L without infection
 Chronic dialysis
 Metastatic cancer
 Surgery in the past 7 days (excluding minor surgery such as skin biopsy)
Conditions rendering follow-up difficult
 Incarcerated or homeless
 Enrolled in ProACT in the past 30 days
  1. ED emergency department, LRTI lower respiratory tract infection
  2. apost-enrollment, LRTI is classified into the following categories (i) community acquired pneumonia, (ii) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, (iii) acute asthma exacerbation, (iv) acute bronchitis, (v) other LRTI
  3. bknown CD4 < 200/mm3, transplant patient on immunosuppressive medications, absolute neutrophil count <500 mm3