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Table 1 Demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory data on hospital admission of the study population, according to the three study groups

From: A real life evaluation of non invasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a multicenter, perspective, observational study for the ACPE SIMEU study group

  Study population Oxygen Group n = 273 CPAP Group n = 788 BiPAP Group n = 232 p+ p# p§
n. (%) 1293 (100) 273 (100) 788 (100) 232 (100)    
Demographics, n.(%)
 Age, median (IQR) years 81 (73–86) 80 (73–85) 81 (73–86) 80 (74–86) 0.366 0.828 0.369
 Female sex 635 (49) 137 (50) 389 (49) 107 (46) 0.548 0.385 0.648
Comorbidities, n(%)
 COPD 406 (31) 92 (34) 241 (31) 72 (32) 0.633 0.798 0.357
 Diabetes 495 (38) 112 (41) 292 (37) 91 (39) 0.482 0.549 0.294
 Chronic kidney disease 353 (27) 87 (32) 215 (27) 51 (22) 0.046 0.106 0.057
 Hypertension 974 (75) 198 (72) 594 (75) 182 (78) 0.306 0.336 0.227
 Atrial fibrillation 264 (20) 64 (23) 154 (20) 46 (20) 0.376 0.924 0.163
 Congestive heart failure 315 (24) 67 (24) 178 (23) 70 (30) 0.061 0.018 0.938
 Coronary artery disease 599 (46) 134 (49) 360 (46) 105 (45) 0.585 0.909 0.304
 Valvulopaty 300 (23) 69 (25) 193 (24) 38 (16) 0.024 0.009 0.361
 ACPE in the previous 12 months 295 (23) 63 (23) 178 (23) 54 (23) 0.970 0.826 0.908
Data on admission, n.(%)
 Systolic blood pressure, median (IQR) mmHg 160 (140–190) 159 (135–180) 164 (140–190) 162 (140–185) 0.043 0.900 0.012
 Diastolic blood pressure, median (IQR) mmHg 90 (80–105) 90 (75–100) 95 (80–107) 87 (75–100) 0.000 0.001 0.025
 Mean blood pressure, median (IQR) mmHg 115 (98–131) 113 (95–127) 117 (99–133) 113 (98–127) 0.084 0.217 0.064
 Hypotension* 19 (1) 4 (1) 14 (2) 1 (< 1) 0.321 0.132 0.992
 Heart rate, median (IQR) beats/min 104 (90–120) 100 (86–113) 108 (95–120) 102 (92–120) 0.000 0.102 0.000
 Respiratory rate, median (IQR) breaths/min 34 (30–40) 30 (26–36) 35 (30–40) 35 (30–40) 0.000 0.824 0.000
 Respiratory rate ε breaths/min, n. (%) 568 (49) 72 (29) 374 (55) 122 (53) 0.000 0.620 0.000
 pH, median (IQR) 7.29 (7.20–7.37) 7.37 (7.28–7.42) 7.28 (7.20–7.35) 7.23 (7.13–7.31) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 pH < 7.35, n. (%) 862 (69) 115 (44) 550 (72) 197 (87) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 PaCO2, median (IQR) mmHg 47 (38–59) 42 (35–51) 47 (39–57) 60 (45–72) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 PaCO2 ≤ 35 mmHg, n. (%) 235 (18) 74 (27) 136 (17) 25 (11) 0.000 0.012 0.000
 PaCO2 ≥ 45 mmHg, n. (%) 732 (58) 116 (43) 440 (57) 176 (76) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, median (IQR) 195 (134–247) 209 (155–252) 190 (128–248) 181 (136–243) 0.119 0.623 0.056
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200, n. (%) 652 (51) 116 (43) 412 (54) 124 (54) 0.006 0.992 0.001
 HCO3, median (IQR) mmol/L 22 (20–26) 23 (20–26) 22 (19–25) 23 (20–26) 0.004 0.042 0.009
 HCO3 > 24 mEq/L 415 (33) 104 (38) 226 (30) 85 (37) 0.011 0.045 0.025
 Lactates, median (IQR) mmol/L 2.2 (1.3–3.9) 2 (1.1–3.1) 2.3 (1.4–4) 2.25 (1.2–4) 0.070 0.573 0.026
 Kelly scale > 3 61 (5) 10 (4) 27 (3) 24 (11) 0.000 0.000 0.452
  1. Footnotes: CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, BiPAP Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure, IQR 25–75 interquartile range, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACPE acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood, FiO2 inspiratory fraction of oxygen, PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood, HCO3 bicarbonates, *Hypothension was defined as systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg; +among the three groups; #between CPAP Group vs. BiPAP Group; §between Oxygen Group vs. CPAP plus BiPAP Groups