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Table 1 Toxic agents reported in recreational drug toxicity

From: Gender differences in acute recreational drug toxicity: a case series from Oslo, Norway

  Outpatient clinic Hospital ED
Females n (%) Males n (%) Females n (%) Males n (%)
Heroin 185 (37.1)*** 808 (47.0) 19 (27.9) 59 (28.2)
Benzodiazepines 167 (33.5) 545 (31.7) 9 (13.2) 38 (18.2)
Amphetamine 120 (24.0)* 339 (19.7) 15 (22.1) 64 (30.6)
GHB 72 (14.4)*** 147 (8.6) 41 (60.3)** 76 (36.4)
Cannabis 55 (11.0) 206 (12.0) 8 (11.8) 25 (12.0)
Cocaine 22 (4.4) 115 (6.7) 5 (7.4) 34 (16.3)
MDMA 16 (3.2) 45 (2.6) 3 (4.4) 7 (3.3)
Methadone 12 (2.4) 48 (2.8) 2 (1.0)
Buprenorphine 12 (2.4) 41 (2.4) 3 (1.4)
Other/unknown opioid 32 (6.4) 121 (7.0) 3 (4.4) 10 (4.8)
Other/unknown 33 (6.6) 116 (6.7) 12 (17.6) 35 (16.7)
Alcohola 115 (23.0) 451 (26.2) 30 (44.1) 80 (38.3)
Totalb 499 (100) 1719 (100) 68 (100) 209 (100)
  1. aPatients with lone alcohol intoxication were not included, so only recorded when taken in addition to other recreational drugs
  2. bAs more than one drug (excluding alcohol) were taken in 38.5% (853/2218) of outpatient cases and 49.5% (137/277) of hospital cases, numbers and percentages add up to more than the total. There were no statistically significant gender differences in having taken more than one drug
  3. ED: emergency department; GHB: gamma-hydroxybutyrate; MDMA: methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 for comparisons between genders