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Table 2 Summary of Findings for Comparison between Ketofol and Single-Agent

From: Ketamine-propofol (Ketofol) for procedural sedation and analgesia in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ketofol compared to a single-agent for procedural sedation and analgesia
Patient or population: Procedural sedation and analgesia
Intervention: Ketofol
Comparison: Single agent
Outcomes Anticipated absolute effects* (95% CI) Relative effect (95% CI) No. of participants (studies) Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)
Risk with single agent Risk with ketofol
Recovery time The mean recovery time was 0 MD 9.88 lower (14.3 lower to 5.46 lower) 171 (2 RCTs) LOW a b
Satisfaction of clinician Study population RR 2.86 (0.64 to 12.69) 186 (2 RCTs) LOW b c
457 per 1000 1000 per 1000 (293 to 1000)
Airway obstruction Study population RR 0.72 (0.35 to 1.48) 467 (2 RCTs) HIGH
72 per 1000 52 per 1000 (25 to 107)
Apnea Study population RR 0.90 (0.33 to 2.44) 514 (2 RCTs) HIGH
30 per 1000 27 per 1000 (10 to 74)
Desaturation Study population RR 1.11 (0.64 to 1.94) 771 (4 RCTs) HIGH
94 per 1000 104 per 1000 (60 to 182)
Nausea Study population RR 0.52 (0.19 to 1.41) 642 (3 RCTs) HIGH
85 per 1000 44 per 1000 (16 to 120)
Vomiting Study population RR 0.63 (0.25 to 1.61) 642 (3 RCTs) HIGH
104 per 1000 65 per 1000 (26 to 167)
*The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).
CI: Confidence interval; RR: Risk ratio.
GRADE (Working Group grades of evidence)
High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.
Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate; the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited; the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.
Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate; the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.
  1. Footnote:
  2. a Duration of treatment varies following different procedures, and thus, required different doses of intervention
  3. b Small sample size
  4. c Subjective outcome with different types of population