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Table 2 Patient characteristics on hospital admission. p-values refer to the comparison between the SARS-CoV-2 negative and the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. a presented as median ± standard deviation (range), b number of patients (percentage based on the number of all patients), c based on Mann-Whitney-U test for nonparametric variables, d based on chi-square test / Fisher’s exact test as appropriate for categorical variables

From: Lung ultrasound in the emergency department - a valuable tool in the management of patients presenting with respiratory symptoms during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

  SARS-CoV-2 positive (n = 39) SARS-CoV-2 negative (n = 96) p-value
patient characteristics
 age [years] 61 ± 16 (25–84) a 60 ± 18 (18–95) a 0.774 c
 sex [male] 22 (56.4%) b 51 (53.1%) b 0.728 d
 BMI [kg/m2] 26.3 ± 6.6 (15.8–52.5) a 26.3 ± 6.2 (16.4–46.9) a 0.722 c
vital sign on admission
 MAD [mmHg] 101,4 ± 14 (71–145) a 98.3 ± 16.6 (58–133) a 0.361 c
 heart rate [/min] 84.8 ± 16.6 (42–113) a 94.8 ± 22 (42–148) a 0.034 c
 temperature [°C] 37.7 ± 0.9 (36.0–39.4) a 37.5 ± 1.0 (35.0–40.1) a 0.101 c
symptoms at admission
 fever 30 (23.1%) b 44 (45.8%) b 0.001 d
 cough 26 (66.7%) b 35 (36.5%) b 0.003 d
 dyspnea 25 (64.1%) b 57 (59.4%) b 0.610 d
 chest pain 6 (15.4%) b 19 (19.8%) b 0.550 d
 limb pain 8 (20.5%) b 4 (4.2%) b 0.002 d
 gastrointestinal symptoms 11 (28.2%) b 22 (22.9%) b 0.517 d
medical history
 hypertension 19 (48.7%) b 43 (44.8%) b 0.678 d
 chronic heart failure 3 (7.7%) b 13 (13.5%) b 0.341 d
 diabetes 5 (12.8%) b 17 (17.7%) b 0.611 d
 chronic kidney injury 2 (5.1%) b 19 (19.8%) b 0.037 d
 oncological disease 7 (17.9%) b 35 (36.5%) b 0.035 d
 lung disease 4 (10.3%) b 33 (34.4%) b 0.005 d
 smoking (ongoing/ previous) 3 (7.7%) b 22 (22.9%) b 0.050 d
laboratory results at admission
 leukocyte count (tsd/μl) (n = 135) 6.96 ± 4.71 (1.05–26.80)a 10.57 ± 7.13 (0.44–49.71) a < 0.001 c
 platelet count (tsd/μl) (n = 135) 189.46 ± 88.04 (10.00–490.00) a 245.05 ± 124.92 (8.00–699.00) a 0.010 c
 hemoglobin g/dl (n = 135) 13.03 ± 1.98 (8.80–17.10) a 11.91 ± 2.49 (4.38–16.40) a 0.003 c
 creatinine mg/dl (n = 135) 1.09 ± 0.66 (0.37–4.18) a 1.31 ± 1.31 (0.49–10.50) a 0.627 c
 C-reaktive protein mg/l (n = 135) 71.1 ± 77.1 (3.0–291.9) a 69.6 ± 82.9 (3.0–374.3) a 0.571 c
 procalcitonin ng/ml (n = 129) 0.16 ± 0.21 (0.05–0.95) a 1.67 ± 8.55 (0.05–81.60) a 0.223 c
 lactat dehydrogenase U/l (n = 135) 369 ± 216 (141–1108) a 285 ± 155 (137–1163) a 0.006 c
 proBNP (ng/l) (n = 127) 1296 ± 666 (50–18,995) a 3004 ± 832 (50–5733) a 0.085 c
 d-dimer (mg/l) (n = 98) 3.53 ± 1.55 (0.19–35.20)a 2.17 ± 0.45 (0.19–21.57) a 0.945 c
inpatient care  
 hospital admission 33 (84.6%) b 65 (67.7%) b 0.046 d
 ICU admission 5 (12.8%) b 11 (11.5%) b 0.777 d
 death 6 (15.4%) b 6 (6.3%) b 0.104 d
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