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Table 4 Emergency department treatment orders implemented for HFEPs in the 2012 Gumi City HF leak disaster

From: Lessons learned from reviewing a hospital’s disaster response to the hydrofluoric acid leak in Gumi city in 2012

Target site

Emergency department treatment order for HFEPs

Respiratory tract

Application of nebulizer with 2 mL mixed calcium gluconate solution comprising 1 ampoule calcium gluconate (2.084 g/20 mL) dissolved in 100 mL normal saline (0.9 g sodium chloride)

Skin burns

Application of gauze soaked with 1 ampoule calcium gluconate (2.084 g/20 mL) dissolved in 100 mL normal saline

Systemic intoxication

Intravenous administration of calcium gluconate (2.084 g/20 mL)

  1. According to target sites of HFEPs, treatments based on calcium gluconate were performed in the emergency department [19, 21, 22]. Treatment orders for HFEPs were confirmed by medical chart reviews and by an interview with one representative emergency department specialist staff physician who was on duty during the late acute phase, early subacute phase, and part of the chronic phase during the study period
  2. HFEPs Hydrogen fluoride-exposed patients, HF Hydrogen fluoride