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Table 1 Primary and secondary outcomes by the type of airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

From: Compromised cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality due to regurgitation during endotracheal intubation: a randomised crossover manikin simulation study

Outcomes Oropharyngeal regurgitation Clean airway P
The first CPR-intubation sequence
  Number of EMT-P 54 54  
  CCF (%), median (IQR)a 79.6 (73.9–85.0) 85.1 (81.8–90.0)  < 0.001
  Compression depth (cm), median (IQR)a 5.2 (4.9–5.4) 5.4 (5.1–5.6)  < 0.001
  Compression rate (bpm), median (IQR)a 102.0 (95.0–106.0) 102.0 (98.0–105.0) 0.295
  The longest interruption (second), median (IQR)a 4.0 (3.0–6.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0)  < 0.001
  Intubation time (second), median (IQR)a 13.0 (8.0–16.0) 10.0 (7.0–14.0) 0.141
  Successful intubation, n (%)b 19 (35.2) 43 (79.6)  < 0.001
  Esophageal intubation, n 0 1  
The second CPR-intubation sequence
  Number of EMT-P 35 10  
  CCF (%), median (IQR)c 80.0 (68.6–85.0) 84.5 (75.0–90.0) 0.104
  Compression depth (cm), median (IQR)c 5.2 (4.9–5.4) 5.3 (5.0–5.5) 0.387
  Compression rate (bpm), median (IQR)c 101.0 (95.3–105.0) 100.5 (95.0–104.0) 0.827
  The longest interruption (second), median (IQR)c 4.0 (3.0–7.0) 4.0 (2.0–5.0) 0.240
  Intubation time (second), median (IQR)c 12.0 (9.0–17.8) 11.5 (11.0–14.0) 0.784
  Successful intubation, n (%)d 16 (45.7) 6 (60.0) 0.431
  Esophageal intubation, n 1 1  
The third CPR-intubation sequence
  Number of EMT-P 18 3  
  CCF (%), median (IQR) c 77.3 (66.7–81.8) 84.2 (79.0–88.9) 0.159
  Compression depth (cm), median (IQR)c 5.0 (4.8–5.5) 4.8 (4.8–5.0) 0.264
  Compression rate (bpm), median (IQR)c 97.5 (94.0–104.0) 104.0 (97.3–107.8) 0.450
  The longest interruption (second), median (IQR)c 6.0 (5.0–8.0) 3.0 (2.3–5.3) 0.093
  Intubation time (second), median (IQR)c 16.5 (14.0–20.0) 9.0 (6.0–10.5) 0.010
  Successful intubation, n (%)d 9 (50.0) 3 (100.0) 0.114
  Esophageal intubation, n 2 0  
Failure of all three CPR-intubation sequences 7 (13.0) 0 (0) 0.006
  1. Abbreviation: EMT-P emergency medical technician-paramedic, CCF chest compression fraction, IQR interquartile range, bpm beats per minute
  2. a Wilcoxon rank sum test
  3. b McNemar test
  4. c Mann–Whitney U test
  5. d Pearson's chi-squared test