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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with OHCA of cardiac origin in each group

From: Effect of annual hospital admissions of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients on prognosis following cardiac arrest

  Low-Volume Hospital Middle-Volume Hospital High-Volume Hospital P-value
Institutions, n 29 28 29  
Patients, n 250 817 2565  
dMale, n (%) 170 (68.0%) [0] 575 (70.4%) [0] 1852 (72.2%) [0] 0.106
dAge, year 70.0 (60.0–82.0) [0] 71.0 (60.0–82.0) [0] 69.0 (58.0–79.0) [0] < 0.001
Cause of OHCA, n (%) [0] [0] [0] 0.035
 Acute coronary syndrome 77 (30.8%) 269 (32.9%) 805 (31.4%)  
 Other cardiaca 75 (30.0%) 226 (27.7%) 620 (24.2%)  
 Presumed cardiac 98 (39.2%) 322 (39.4%) 1140 (44.4%)  
dWitness by bystander, n (%) 171 (68.4%) [0] 564 (69.0%) [0] 1754 (68.4%) [0] 0.839
dCPR initiated by bystander, n (%) 130 (52.0%) [0] 358 (43.8%) [0] 1233 (48.1%) [0] 0.741
dDefibrillation by bystander, n (%) 5 (2.0%) [0] 48 (5.9%) [0] 160 (6.2%) [0] 0.025
dPrimary ECG rhythm at the scene, n (%) [0] [0] [0] 0.042
 Ventricular fibrillation 89 (35.6%) 325 (39.8%) 1113 (43.4%)  
 Pulseless ventricular tachycardia 1 (0.4%) 10 (1.2%) 16 (0.6%)  
 Pulseless electrical activity 71 (28.4%) 223 (27.3%) 701 (27.3%)  
 Asystole 89 (35.6%) 259 (31.7%) 735 (28.7%)  
Treatments by EMS
dDefibrillation, n (%) 58 (23.2%) [0] 196 (24.0%) [0] 722 (28.1%) [0] 0.010
dUse of airway devices, n (%) [0] [0] [0] < 0.001
  Bag valve mask 179 (71.6%) 485 (59.4%) 1041 (40.6%)  
  Laryngeal mask airway 5 (2.0%) 21 (2.6%) 171 (6.7%)  
  Esophageal obturator airway 53 (21.2%) 267 (32.7%) 940 (36.6%)  
  Tracheal intubation 13 (5.2%) 44 (5.4%) 413 (16.1%)  
dIntravenous fluid administration, n (%) 78 (31.6%) [3] 329 (40.3%) [0] 1120 (43.7%) [0] < 0.001
dTreatments by doctor before arrival at ED, n (%) 23 (9.2%) [0] 91 (11.1%) [0] 566 (22.1%) [0] < 0.001
dAdrenaline dosage until arrival at ED (mg) 0.0 (0.0–2.0) [123] 1.0 (0.0–2.0) [290] 1.0 (1.0–3.0) [1183] < 0.001
Time (min)
dFrom calling EMS to arrival at the scene (min) 9.0 (7.0–11.0) [0] 8.0 (7.0–10.0) [0] 8.0 (6.0–10.0) [1] < 0.001
dFrom arrival at the scene to arrival at the ED (min) 22.0 (17.0–29.0) [0] 22.0 (17.0–29.0) [3] 24.0 (18.0–31.0) [27] < 0.001
ECG rhythm on arrival at ED, n (%) [0] [0] [0] < 0.001
 Ventricular fibrillation 28 (11.2%) 101 (12.4%) 469 (18.3%)  
 Pulseless ventricular tachycardia 5 (2.0%) 8 (1.0%) 15 (0.6%)  
 Pulseless electrical activity 65 (26.0%) 220 (26.9%) 645 (25.1%)  
 Asystole 87 (34.8%) 249 (30.5%) 714 (27.8%)  
 Return of spontaneous circulation 65 (26.0%) 239 (29.3%) 722 (28.1%)  
Extracorporeal CPR, n (%) 37 (14.8%) [0] 144 (17.6%) [0] 667 (26.0%) [0] < 0.001
 Time from arrival at ED to start of VA-ECMO (min) 35.5 (26.8–63.0) [214] 40.5 (29.0–65.0) [673] 29.0 (20.0–41.0) [1902] < 0.001
Laboratory data on arrival at the ED
dSerum Urea nitrogen (mg/dl) 19.1 (14.1–30.8) [83] 19.0 (14.9–27.0) [314] 18.9 (14.0–26.6) [833] 0.131
dSerum Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.15 (0.95–1.60) [84] 1.13 (0.90–1.43) [316] 1.11 (0.90–1.50) [814] 0.616
dSerum total protein (g/dl) 6.2 (5.7–6.8) [90] 6.1 (5.5–6.7) [311] 6.1 (5.4–6.6) [902] 0.009
dSerum albumin (g/dl) 3.4 (3.0–3.8) [93] 3.4 (2.9–3.8) [332] 3.3 (2.8–3.7) [906] < 0.001
dpH 7.06 (6.92–7.25) [89] 7.10 (6.93–7.25) [261] 7.06 (6.90–7.25) [755] 0.066
dPaCO2 (mmHg) 52.3 (38.6–77.4) [92] 52.5 (39.5–73.5) [261] 51.80 (37.3–77.5) [753] 0.863
dPaO2 (mmHg) 144.0 (82.9–288.7) [98] 137.5 (81.4–280.0) [261] 169.0 (82.6–340.0) [754] 0.012
dHCO3 (mEq/l) 16.2 (12.8–19.7) [96] 16.2 (12.1–19.8) [273] 15.4 (11.9–18.8) [756] 0.006
dBase excess (mEq/l) −13.1 (−17.9–-7.3) [96] −13.0 (−18.7–-7.0) [277] −14.4 (−20.2–-8.6) [765] < 0.001
dLactate (mg/dl) 100.8 (72.0–129.6) [113] 90.8 (59.2–122.1) [306] 95.0 (65.7–128.7) [778] 0.187
dGlucose (mg/dl) 244.0 (172.25–305.25) [100] 260.5 (198.00–330.50) [279] 263.0 (199.0–330.0) [801] 0.230
dPatient with ROSC prior to arrival at ED, n (%) 65 (26.0%) [0] 239 (29.3%) [0] 722 (28.1%) [0] 0.854
dPatient with ROSC after arrival at ED, n (%) 64 (25.6%) [0] 246 (30.1%) [0] 757 (29.5%) [0] 0.439
Time from calling EMS to the first ROSC before arriving at the ED (min)b 22.0 (15.0-27.0) [177] 18.0 (13.0–25.0) [541] 19.0 (13.0–26.0) [1628] 0.749
Time from calling EMS to the first ROSC after arriving at the ED (min)c 44.0 (34.0–56.5) [80] 42.5 (34.0–57.0) [335] 44.0 (34.0–57.0) [1072] 0.852
Time from ED arrival to ROSC after admission (min)c 13.0 (8.0–20.0) [82] 13.0 (8.0–22.0) [335] 13.0 (8.0–24.0) [1074] 0.150
dMotor score of GCS in ED 1.0 (1.0-1.0) [0] 1.0 (1.0-1.0) [0] 1.0 (1.0-1.0) [0] 0.351
Therapeutic hypothermia, n (%) 74 (29.6%) [0] 256 (31.3%) [0] 955 (37.2%) [0] < 0.001
Outcomes 30 days after cardiac arrest [0] [0] [0]  
 Survive, n (%) 81 (32.4%) 269 (32.9%) 883 (34.4%) 0.353
 Favorable neurological outcome, n (%) 46 (18.4%) 167 (20.4%) 543 (21.2%) 0.308
  1. Data are presented as the median (25th-75th percentile), percentage, or numbers
  2. The number in “[]” indicates the number of missing measurements or patients not included in the analysis
  3. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECG electrocardiogram, ED emergency department, EMS emergency medical services, GCS Glasgow coma scale, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, VA-ECMO veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation
  4. a“Other cardiac” causes include heart failure, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac diseases other than identified acute coronary syndrome
  5. bData limited to cases with ROSC prior to ED arrival
  6. cData limited to cases with cardiac arrest on arrival at the ED
  7. dSelected as potential patient-related factors