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Table 1 Types of cognitive bias presented in the questionnaire

From: Cognitive biases encountered by physicians in the emergency room

Cognitive biases Explanation
Availability bias The tendency to instinctively think of things that come to mind easily as being more representative than they actually are.
Overconfidence bias The tendency to have an inaccurate and false opinion about one’s self
Anchoring bias The tendency to adhering to one’s first idea without considering other possibilities.
Confirmation bias The tendency to tweak the information to fit one’s hypothesis.
Hassle bias The tendency to choose a course of action that is easy or causes the least amount of stress (here, to the physician)
Rule bias The tendency to blindly follow general rules that are arbitrarily made.
Base rate neglect The tendency to ignore the frequency of a disease; this is especially true in the case of rare diseases.
Visceral bias The tendency of physicians’ decisions to be influenced by feelings towards patients, which may be positive or negative.
Premature closure The tendency of physicians to cease thinking further after making a diagnosis.
Maslow’s hammer The tendency to over-rely on a familiar tool (e.g., endoscopy and cardiac catheterization