Skip to main content

Author Response Letter: “Correspondence: Is there an association between centre volume and survival or neurological outcomes among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients?”

The Original Article was published on 10 December 2022

A Research to this article was published on 07 July 2022

Peer Review reports

Comment

We thank Goh and Ho for sharing opinions that enhanced the content of our paper. Based on their comments, we present discussions that will be applicable to the future research.

As per Goh et al. reviews, the conflicting results between our study and the previous studies can be explained, by stating the fact that there are no differences in hospital characteristics other than the number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients delivered [1]. As we reported, in Japan; most of the hospitals that received transferred OHCA patients have specialists in each department and can perform extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) [1]. Although not shown in the paper, all of these hospitals have 24/7 availability to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and almost all of them perform therapeutic temperature management (TTM) (except one low-volume hospital and one middle-volume hospital). Probably, due to the presence of this background, there have been no reports from Japan showing a significant difference between hospital size and prognosis of OHCA patients [1,2,3]. One report, however, shows the advantage of Critical Care Medicine or Medical Centres (CCMC) over non-CCMC for the outcome of OHCA patients [3]. CCMC in Japan should be capable to provide advanced medical care on a 24-h basis, and advanced treatments such as PCI, TTM, and ECMO, the main focus in Goh et al.’s comments, are a standard practice. In our study, we see no significant correlation between hospital size and prognosis for patients with OHCA in an analysis limited to CCMC [1].

Goh et al. stated that post-cardiac arrest care, such as 24/7 PCI, TTM and ECMO capabilities, needs to be matched. However, in our study, these factors matched spontaneously. Therefore, our results were not affected by the availability factor of 24/7 PCI, TTM and ECMO. In our study, the neurological outcomes in patients with pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation improved in high-volume hospitals. This result suggests that the hospital volume, i.e., experience in treating a large number of OHCA patients, also affects the neurological outcome of OHCA patients to some extent.

One major reason for the inconclusive results on this topic may be the varying degrees of centralization of hospital functions in different countries. Thus, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also not reached certain conclusions [4, 5]. In fact, the heterogeneity of studies used in these systematic reviews and meta-analyses is high.

In areas where the concentration of advanced equipment in large facilities is high, facilities with a higher number of transferred OHCA patients have a better prognosis. To examine the impact of the number of genuine OHCA patient transfers on the prognosis of OHCA patients in such areas, it is necessary to match post-cardiac arrest care, such as 24/7 PCI, TTM and ECMO arrangements, as suggested by Goh et al.

We hope, we have clarified the queries to the best extent possible.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Abbreviations

CCMC:

Critical care medicine or medical centres

ECMO:

Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

OHCA:

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

PCI:

Percutaneous coronary intervention

TTM:

Temperature management

References

  1. Tsuchida T, Ono K, Maekawa K, Hayamizu M, Hayakawa M. Effect of annual hospital admissions of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients on prognosis following cardiac arrest. BMC Emerg Med. 2022;22(1):121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Kashiura M, Amagasa S, Moriya T, Sakurai A, Kitamura N, Tagami T, et al. Relationship between institutional volume of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases and 1-month neurologic outcomes: A post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study. J Emerg Med. 2020;59(2):227–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Matsuyama T, Kiyohara K, Kitamura T, Nishiyama C, Nishiuchi T, Hayashi Y, et al. Hospital characteristics and favourable neurological outcome among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Osaka, Japan. Resuscitation. 2017;110:146–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Goh AXC, Seow JC, Lai MYH, Liu N, Man Goh Y, Ong MEH, et al. Association of high-volume centers with survival outcomes among patients with nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(5):e2214639.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Yeo JW, Ng ZHC, Goh AXC, Gao JF, Liu N, Lam SWS, et al. Impact of cardiac arrest centers on the survival of patients with nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022;11(1):e023806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Editage (https://online.editage.jp/) for English language editing.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

TT and MH contributed to study conception, manuscript preparation, and revision for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript version prior to submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Takumi Tsuchida.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tsuchida, T., Hayakawa, M. Author Response Letter: “Correspondence: Is there an association between centre volume and survival or neurological outcomes among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients?”. BMC Emerg Med 22, 198 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12873-022-00744-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12873-022-00744-z

Keywords

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Hospital volume
  • Neurological outcome
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • Prediction
  • Prognosis